Sunday, March 15, 2020

Biography of Lewis Chesty Puller, U.S. Marine

Biography of Lewis 'Chesty' Puller, U.S. Marine Lewis B. Chesty Puller (June 26, 1898–October 11, 1971) was a U.S. Marine who saw battle experience in World War II and in the Korean War conflict. He was one of the most decorated Marines in U.S. history. Fast Facts: Lewis B. 'Chesty' Puller Known For: One of the most decorated U.S. Marines in history, serving in World War II and KoreaBorn:Â  June 26, 1898 in West Point, VirginiaParents: Martha Richardson Leigh and Matthew M. PullerDied: October 11, 1971 at the Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, VirginiaEducation: Virginia Military Institute (1917–1918)Spouse: Virginia Montague Evans (m. November 13, 1937)Children: Virginia McCandlish (b. 1938), twins Martha Leigh and Lewis Burwell Puller, Jr. (b. 1944) Early Life Lewis B. Chesty Puller was born June 26, 1898, at West Point, Virginia, the third of four children born to Matthew M. Puller and Martha Richardson Leigh (known as Pattie). Matthew Puller was a wholesale grocer, and Lewis had two older sisters and a younger brother. In 1908, Matthew died, and in the familys reduced circumstances, Lewis Puller was forced to aid in supporting his family at the age of 10. He continued on at school, but he hawked crabs at the local waterfront amusement park and then worked as a laborer in a pulp mill. Interested in military matters from a young age, he attempted to join the U.S. Army in 1916 to take part in the Punitive Expedition to capture Mexican leader Pancho Villa. Underage at the time, Puller was blocked by his mother who refused to consent to his enlistment. When war was declared with Germany at the start of World War I, Puller was 17 and he accepted an appointment to Virginia Military Institute as a state cadet, receiving financial assistance in return for later service. A mediocre student, he spent the summer at a Reserve Officer Training Corps camp in New York. Joining the Marines With the U.S. entry into World War I in April 1917, Puller quickly became restless and tired of his studies. Inspired by the U.S. Marines performance at Belleau Wood, he departed VMI and enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps. Completing basic training at Parris Island, South Carolina, Puller received an appointment to officer candidate school. Passing through the course at Quantico, Virginia, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant on June 16, 1919. His time as an officer proved brief, as a postwar reduction in the USMC saw him moved to the inactive list 10 days later. Haiti Not willing to forego his military career, Puller rejoined the Marines on June 30 as an enlisted man with the rank of corporal. Assigned to Haiti, he served in the Gendarmerie dHaiti as a lieutenant and aided in combating Cacos rebels. Formed under a treaty between the U.S. and Haiti, the gendarmerie possessed American officers, largely Marines, and Haitian enlisted personnel. While in Haiti, Puller worked to regain his commission and served as adjutant to Major Alexander Vandegrift. Returning to the U.S. in March 1924, he was successful in obtaining a commission as a second lieutenant. Navy Crosses Over the next four years, Puller moved through a variety of barracks assignments that took him from the East Coast to Pearl Harbor. In December 1928, he received orders to join a detachment of the Nicaraguan National Guard. Arriving in Central America, Puller spent the next two years battling bandits. For his efforts in mid-1930, he was awarded the Navy Cross. Returning home in 1931, he completed the Company Officers Course before again sailing for Nicaragua. Remaining until October 1932, Puller won a second Navy Cross for his performance against the insurgents. Overseas Afloat In early 1933, Puller sailed to join the Marine Detachment at the American Legation in Beijing, China. While there, he led the famed Horse Marines before departing to oversee the detachment aboard the cruiser USS Augusta. While aboard, he came to know the cruisers skipper, Captain Chester W. Nimitz. In 1936, Puller was made an instructor at the Basic School in Philadelphia. After three years in the classroom, he returned to Augusta. This homecoming proved short as he went ashore in 1940 for service with the 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines at Shanghai. On November 13, 1937, he married Virginia Montague Evans, who he had met a decade before. Together they had three children: Virginia McCandlish Puller (born in 1938), and twins Lewis Burwell Puller, Jr. and Martha Leigh Puller, born in 1944. World War II In August 1941, Puller, now a major, departed China to take command of the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines at Camp Lejeune. He was in this role when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and the U.S. entered World War II. In the months that followed, Puller prepared his men for war and the battalion sailed to defend Samoa. Arriving in May 1942, his command remained in the islands through the summer until being ordered to join Vandegrifts 1st Marine Division during the Battle of Guadalcanal. Coming ashore in September, his men quickly went into action along the Matanikau River. Coming under intense attack, Puller won a Bronze Star when he signaled USS Monssen to aid in rescuing trapped American forces. In late October, Pullers battalion played a key role during the Battle of Guadalcanal. Holding back massive Japanese attacks, Puller won a third Navy Cross for his performance, while one his men, Staff Sergeant John Basilone, received the Medal of Honor. After the division left Guadalcanal, Puller was made the executive officer of the 7th Marine Regiment. In this role, he took part in the Battle of Cape Gloucester in late 1943 and early 1944. Leading From the Front During the opening weeks of the campaign, Puller won a fourth Navy Cross for his efforts in directing Marine units in attacks against the Japanese. On February 1, 1944, Puller was promoted to colonel and later took command of the 1st Marine Regiment. Finishing the campaign, Pullers men sailed for the Russell Islands in April before preparing for the Battle of Peleliu. Landing on the island in September, Puller fought to overcome a tenacious Japanese defense. For his work during the engagement, he received the Legion of Merit. The Korean War With the island secured, Puller returned to the U.S. in November to lead the Infantry Training Regiment at Camp Lejeune. He was in this role when the war ended in 1945. In the years after World War II, Puller oversaw a variety of commands including the 8th Reserve District and the Marine Barracks at Pearl Harbor. With the outbreak of the Korean War, Puller again took command of the 1st Marine Regiment. Preparing his men, he took part in General Douglas MacArthurs landings at Inchon in September 1950. For his efforts during the landings, Puller won the Silver Star and a second Legion of Merit. Taking part in the advance into North Korea, Puller played a key role in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in November and December. Performing brilliantly against overwhelming numbers, Puller earned the Distinguished Service Cross from the U.S. Army and fifth Navy Cross for his role in the battle. Promoted to brigadier general in January 1951, he briefly served as assistant commander of the 1st Marine Division before temporarily taking command the following month after the transfer of Major General O.P. Smith. He remained in this role until returning to the United States in May. Later Career and Death Briefly leading the 3rd Marine Brigade at Camp Pendleton, Puller remained with the unit when it became the 3rd Marine Division in January 1952. Promoted to major general in September 1953, he was given command of the 2nd Marine Division at Camp Lejeune the following July. Plagued by decaying health, Puller was forced to retire on November 1, 1955. One of the most decorated Marines in history, Puller won the nations second-highest decorations six times and received two Legions of Merit, a Silver Star, and a Bronze Star. Puller himself said he was uncertain how he came to be nicknamed Chesty. It may have been a reference to his big, thrust-out chest; chesty in the Marines also means cocky. Receiving a final promotion to lieutenant general, Puller retired to Virginia, where he died after a series of strokes on October 11, 1971.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The Talented Mr. Ripley essays

The Talented Mr. Ripley essays Directors often base their films on novels; however, directors many times will alter the characters, plots, and settings of their films to appeal to an audience more than the novel. Changing the overall image of a character and accentuating different elements of a setting for a film will alter an audiences perspective of the character. This new opinion of the character in the film usually portrays the directors feelings toward a particular character, whether the feelings are positive or negative. The Talented Mr. Ripley is a wonderful example of changing a character and setting so they will come across to an audience in the same way the character appeals to the creator. A good scene for comparison is when Marge finds Dickies beloved rings among Tom Ripleys possessions. This scene shows how the drastic differences in Marges character changes the relationship of Tom and Marge in the novel and film and also changes the audiences perspective of Marge because of the different ways Pa tricia Highsmith and Anthony Minghella wrote her character. The setting of the ring scene is different in the novel and film. Marge confronts Tom with the dilemma of Dickie having taken off his rings in a large, open room in the novel; an open room for an open mind. This open room instills a feeling of receptiveness on the part of Marge. Tom has been sitting on a sofa that has just been described as fitted his shoulders like someones arm, or rather fitted it better than somebodys arm... The cozy sofa also makes the reader aware that Tom is very vulnerable at this point in the movie because he is relaxed and drowsy. Highsmith is able to change the cozy feeling quickly though because she then draws attention to Toms nervous actions when Marge informs Tom that she has found Dickies rings. Tom stands up quickly; he bumps into on of his shoes and picks it up; he holds the sho...