Sunday, December 29, 2019

Analysis of interpersonal communication as seen in How to...

Jessica Diggs SD101 Angela Nebel April 6, 2004 Like most other movies, How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days uses many non-verbal cues to let the audience know how the characters are feeling and what they are thinking, art imitating life, as non-verbal communication is ingrained in everyday existence. Non-verbal communication is so pervasive in everyday life, in fact, that one may not even recognize consciously the cues given to them by others. One example of non-verbal cues in How to Lose a Guy took place in the Composure staff meeting at the beginning of the movie. While the woman perceived immediately to be a brown-noser tells her boss about the pieces she is working on, Andie and a friend are making facial expressions at one another that†¦show more content†¦Realizing, however, that the stages dont always progress in sequence and can overlap can help give one a general idea of how their relationship came together, fell apart, and then was reborn. Like all couples, Andie and Ben struggle with dialectical tensions in their relationship. First, they have trouble with the connection-autonomy dialectic. They are spending every day together trying to build (or destroy) their relationship (connection), but in Andies efforts to drive Ben away she begins to make him uncomfortable with the amount of control she has in his life. She redecorates his apartment, makes him wear a shirt that matches hers and their dogs, crashes his night with his friends, and even blows his nose for him, interfering with Bens autonomy. Another dialectic that Ben and Andie struggle with is that of openness-closedness. They both begin to have feelings for the other and want to share some things about themselves but neither is willing to disclose their original motive for the relationship. Also, Ben understandably does not mention to Andie that he was in diapers until he was five, and he gets angry when his mom divulges that information. Every relationship has such tensions, and they cannot be eliminated, only managed. Ben and Andie do not manage conflict effectively. Most of the time Andie isShow MoreRelatedEssay on Management skill23177 Words   |  93 Pages Page Ref: 238 Topic: Building Positive Interpersonal Relationships Skill: Recall 2) Studies have found that people make fewer mental errors when experiencing positive relationships. Answer: TRUE Explanation: This is true because positive relationships create positive emotions such as joy, fulfillment, etc., which in turn actually expand peoples mental capacities. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 238 Topic: Building Positive Interpersonal Relationships Skill: Recall 3) One suggestedRead MoreGgfghj12150 Words   |  49 Pagesfocus since the ï ¬ rst and second editions of this book. Why a Third Edition? The ï ¬ rst edition of the book (1999) was written at a time when, despite setbacks, conï ¬â€šict resolution approaches in peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding were widely seen for the ï ¬ rst time to be central in global politics in the context of what US President George Bush senior had (somewhat reluctantly) called a ‘new world order’. His successor, Bill Clinton, and UN Secretary-General Koï ¬  Annan both broadly subscribedRead MoreEssay about Gendered Media9688 Words   |  39 PagesMedia on Views of Gender Julia T. Wood Department of Communication, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill times more often than ones about women (â€Å"Study Reports Sex Bias,† 1989), media misrepresent actual proportions of men and women in the population. This constant distortion tempts us to believe that there really are more men than women and, further, that men are the cultural standard. THEMES IN MEDIA Of the many influences on how we view men and women, media are the most pervasive andRead MoreNegotiation and Culture: Case Study24152 Words   |  97 PagesCulture and Negotiations Why do Japanese negotiators behave in the manner they do? How does culture affect negotiating behavior and outcomes? MASTER THESIS Author’s name: Patrycja J. Krause Student’s number: 258891 Academic advisor: Sà ¸ren O. Hilligsà ¸e Faculty of English Aarhus School of Business May 2006 I would like to thank my Mom, Barbara, for her understanding, encouragement and eternal support, as well as my advisor, Sà ¸ren O. Hilligsà ¸e, for his academic help, advice and faith in me keepingRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesCover Design: Suzanne Duda Lead Media Project Manager: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: Sharon Anderson/BookMasters, Inc. 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The course enabled us to understand and learn how the organisations work and what key considerations a manager should take care of while managing different people. It also provided us the opportunity to understand ourselves through Concrete Experiences and Reflective Observations of various concepts. It also explains how human behaviour differs based on culture, geography, gender and other external environmental influence. It explained how our ideas and behaviour are perceived by others in anRead MoreLeading Function of Management15642 Words   |  63 Pagesmanagement. It deals with chalking out a future course of action deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals . According to KOONTZ, â€Å"Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are where we want to be†. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving decision making. 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Scope Creep/Unrealistic Expectations ( scope creep: Frequent and uncontrolled changes in the scope or requirements of a project) #8. Lack of Monitoring of Plan #9. Absence of a Project Management Methodology #10. Simple BAD LUCK :) You may feel free to chose any of the above and/or add a cause from your own

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Why Is It A Social Problem And Not A Personal Problem Essay

Why Is it a social problem and not a personal problem: The gender age gap is a social problem since it affects a majority of the society and that it affects not only one’s life but also society in which the gender gap is present depending on the extent of this gap. For example, the average Canadian women owns only 82 cents for every dollar the average men make based on a weekly salary comparison and full and partial time shifts (†¦). This affects life considerably of the individuals and families since, according to the (†¦) research, the gender wage gap is approximately 8 000$ annually taking in consideration skills, tenure, qualification and the job. This considerable gap can be seen differently by both conflict theorists (which defends liberal feminism and other type of feminism) and functionalists. Conflict theorists would point out the fight of two groups, being here women and men over a resource that is demanded to be distributed equally between both sexes. While some argue over the existence of the gender wage gap, statistics shows that there is a notable difference between the salaries of both sexes stating that women’s salaries having the same qualifications, education, seniority, hour shift and the having the same faculty are only paid 75,6 % of their male colleague (†¦). But why is it? Seeing this problematic through the eyes of a conflict theorist, one could easily point out the strong workplace discrimination and gender biases. Indeed, the rather new entrance ofShow MoreRelatedHow Private Are You Online? What Information Do You Share About Yourself?784 Words   |  4 Pagesto prove the lack of privacy when it comes to sharing information on social media. It will also cover how social media, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.; has taken over as a means of interacting in lieu of face-to face communication, telephones, and written communication. Studies have proven the information shared on social media is not private. For example, private investigators have known to make a living surfing social media for years to locate individuals, simply because, information onRead MoreSocial Workers At A Higher Risk For Burnout And Fatigue1652 Words   |  7 PagesIdentifying the problem statement is the first step in determining what the issue is and why it is important for research. Once that has been determined formulation of the problem can been done which helps lay the groundwork for writing a research paper. In addition, the problem that has been chosen as a topic for research is, Are social workers at a higher-risk for burnout and compassion fatigue because of job stress? The problem statement is will educating social workers about burnout and fatigueRead More Deviant Behavior Essay1653 Words   |  7 Pagesquestion is, â€Å"Why is a certain type of behavior considered deviant?† This paper will take a particular devian t behavior, which is illicit drug use, and examine why this type of behavior is labeled as deviant. By using theoretical approaches, this paper will provide the reader an explanation of why illicit drug use occurs in the first place. Throughout history, all human societies have used drugs, but it hasn’t been until recently considered deviant behavior. Drug use was seen only as a personal problemRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility and Single Strongest Argument1106 Words   |  5 PagesIdentify and explain the major factors in the social environment that create an atmosphere in which business criticism takes place and prospers. dasdasdassadasdasdadadasdadsdadasdasdassssssssssssssssssssss- ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss- ssssssssssssssssssssssscourse? Or is it still a vital reality? 4. Give an example of each of the four levels of power discussed in this chapter. Also, give an example of each of the spheres of business power. 5. Explain in yourRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination and Understanding Personal Troubles as Social Issues1259 Words   |  6 PagesImagination and understanding personal troubles as social issues: The Sociological Imagination allows us to question â€Å"things† or issues which are common and familiar to us and to find its deeper meaning. With the Sociological Imagination way of thinking, we find reasoning and uncover why many things in society are the way they are. The Sociological Imagination does not attempt to understand the individual and his or her problems alone, but focuses on issues and problems as it affects the greaterRead MoreDeviant Behavior Essay1674 Words   |  7 Pagesis, Why is a certain type of behavior considered deviant? This paper will take a particular deviant behavior, which is illicit drug use, and examine why this type of behavior is labeled as deviant. By using theoretical approaches, this paper will provide the reader an explanation of why illicit drug use occurs in the first place. Throughout history, all human societies have used drugs, but it hasnt been until recently considered deviant behavior. Drug use was seen only as a personal problemRead MoreObesity as a Social Issue Essays869 Words   |  4 PagesObesity as a Social Issue Individual problems such as addictions, illnesses and mental depression stalk us throughout our lives, but there is more to addictions, illnesses and mental depression than meets the eye. A good example of this theory is obesity. Obesity in Australia is turning into a problem and as the rates of obesity increase each year, the larger the problem expands. According to sociologist, C. Mills, problems can be divided into either troubles or issues and more often than not, aRead MoreSociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills969 Words   |  4 Pages C. Wright Mills defined sociological imagination as the awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society. Understanding and being able to exercise the sociological imagination helps us understand the relationship between the individual and society. Mills focuses on the distinction between personal troubles and public issues. Having sociological imagination is critical for individual people and societies at large to understand. It is important that people areRead MoreAnti-Oppressive Practice1830 Words   |  7 PagesAnti-oppressive practice Within the social work that we encounter on a daily basis, anti-oppressive (AOP) practice is generally referred to as the wider term that covers various practices and approaches as structural, radical, feminist, critical, anti-racist and liberating actions. AOP is viewed as a social work practice that attempts to address the structural inequalities and social divisions that is usually experienced in the social work. The ultimate aim of AOP is to provide more appropriateRead MoreA Study Based On Personal Interests And Literature Review798 Words   |  4 PagesStudying sociology is to understand social action that can have an explanation of causes and effects. In order to understand the social action, scholars need to conduct a research prior to interpret the phenomenon at the specific study area. However, conducting a research, researchers need to complete many tasks, such as development of a research question, selection of research methodology, development of questionnaires, data co llection, data analyse and research report writing. This paper outlines

Saturday, December 21, 2019

evilmac Macbeths Evil Aspect Essay - 4023 Words

Macbeths Evil Aspect Macbeth by William Shakespeare rrepresents unrelenting evil from beginning to end. Who is th emost evil? What motivates the evil intentions and actions? This paper intends to answer these questions. Charles Lamb in On the Tragedies of Shakespeare explains the impact of evil as seen in Macbeths initial murder: The state of sublime emotion into which we are elevated by those images of night and horror which Macbeth is made to utter, that solemn prelude with which he entertains the time till the bell shall strike which is to call him to murder Duncan, - when we no longer read it in a book, when we have given up that vantage-ground of abstraction which reading possesses over seeing, and†¦show more content†¦The kings evil and its cure and the graces which hang about the English throne are briefly described. [. . .] It marks the turning point, and it introduces the notion of the appeal by faith to Divine Grace which will reverse the evil course of the action when Malcolm and Macduff learn to outrun reason in that way, instead of by responding to the Witches supernatural solicitations as Macbeth has done. (110) Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the play as intertwining with evil: While in Hamlet and others of Shakespeares plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon and brooded over his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at a heat and imagined from first to last with rapidity and power, and a subtlety of workmanship which has become instructive. The theme of the drama is the gradual ruin through yielding to evil within and evil without, of a man, who, though from the first tainted by base and ambitious thoughts, yet possessed elements in his nature of possible honor and loyalty. (792) The Tragedy of Macbeth opens in a desert place with thunder and lightning and three Witches who are anticipating their meeting with Macbeth, There to meet with Macbeth. They all say together the mysterious and contradictory Fair is foul, and foul is fair. King Duncan learns that brave

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Graduation Speech A Speech - 1403 Words

In the commencement speech entitled â€Å"This is Water,† the speaker came to highlight to the graduates at the commencement ceremony, what the â€Å"real world â€Å"was like because he thought they are not alert enough to know. He made reference to this through the anecdote at the beginning where the two young fish didn’t know what water was and of course water is life to fishes. Therefore, the speaker found it necessary to tell what life was really about through a commencement speech because of his opinion that they may have limited knowledge concerning it. In paragraph 6 of his speech, he states â€Å"The plain fact is that you graduating seniors do not yet have any clue what ‘day in, day out’ really means. There happen to be whole large part of adult†¦show more content†¦He went into close detail of distributing the experiences in order to develop a connection with his audience. He wanted his audience to feel and imagine what he is describi ng and this helped to get his argument across to the graduate. He gave the impression to the graduates that these experiences may have taken place at least one with them but it will now become a life routine. The speaker made the point about the way of thinking that one will entails when these experiencing has become a day-to-day practice. He spoke how â€Å"choosing† and â€Å"default setting† way of thinking that he adapted and he exclaimed that most of the graduate will develop it is â€Å"automatic.† He states in paragraph 9 â€Å"it’s going to seem, everybody else is just in my way, and who are all those people in my way? And look at how repulsive most of them are and how stupid and cow-like and dead-eyed and nonhuman they seem here in checkout line†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.I’m starved and tire and I can’t even get home to eat and unwind because of all these stupid god-damn people.† The argument that the speaker is leaving the audience to implying is that with the education and credentials that he acquires, he regrets that he has to be going through these hard and struggling situation. As previously said, adults and older folks may experience th ese circumstances so the speaker concluded that the people around him may beShow MoreRelatedgraduation speech1882 Words   |  8 Pagesgood speech for an elementary graduation would depend on who is going to be doing the speaking. For a teacher, youll want to make sure you thank the students for all of their hard work and wish them the best in the next grade they move up to. For kids, they can thank their teacher for a good year and thank their parents for their support.This page contains a funny sample speech for Middle School or Elementary School graduations for principles, teachers or other key note speakers. The speech templateRead MoreGraduation Speech650 Words   |  3 PagesCongratulations everyone, congratulations. If youre participating in this graduation ceremony, youve taken the next step toward your future goals and dreams. For those of you that just finished your transfer degrees, congratulations. To those of you that came back to school after a few years off to get a better education, congratulations. To those of you that came to get a certificate or learn IT or computer programming so you can get a better job, congratulations. Now that youre moving onRead MoreGraduation Speech1128 Words   |  5 PagesSasenarine Tomby Graduation Speech 2011 Good afternoon [name of members of the head table], teachers, parents, students, fellow graduates and distinguished guests. I must first and foremost thank God for this blessing and honor to stand before you today as Valedictorian of the Class of 2011. Yet, today is not only my day to shine. Every graduate present here is deserving of high praise and recognition and I would like to congratulate each of you on reaching this milestone in life. IRead MoreGraduation Speech : Commencement Speech2038 Words   |  9 Pagesfathoming the stars or even that improbably wonderful Gonzaga game. So that’s unfortunate. But I would argue that it’s good to be aware of temporariness when you are thinking about what you want to do with your life. The whole idea of this commencement speech is that I’m supposed to offer you some thoughts on how you might live a good life out there in the so-called Real World, which by the way I assure you is no more or less real than the one in which you have so far found yourselves. But I can’t giveRead MoreGraduation Speech : My Graduation Essay1022 Words   |  5 Pages My Graduation A Graduation ceremony is one of the major steps in life, it marks the start of new changes in our lives. It ushers us into growing up and be responsible for our actions. It marks a new dawn of embracing life experiences, cultivation of good work ethics and eventually culminates in chasing our dreams. On my graduation day, I woke up to the sweet aroma of the breakfast my sister was making. I sat down to eat when the food was ready. It took me about 2 hours to finishRead MoreGraduation Speech : Speech On Love748 Words   |  3 PagesHi all, The tenors got together tonight for a conference call with the goal of setting deadlines for the memorization of competition music. In addition, we came up with a list of things well need to get before the season starts, both as a section and in order to get Celeste going with everything she needs. If any of these things need to be discussed in detail at the October double were more than happy to do so. Heres a brief layout of our music goals up until the January double: October:Read MoreEssay on Graduation Speech830 Words   |  4 Pagesthe senior class president. A few weeks ago, I was told that I would be speaking at graduation. I was asked to put together a speech for tonight -- Ive become experienced at speech writing over the past couple of weeks. The speech that you are hearing is the fourth one Ive written, the recycle bin needs to be emptied at home and I need a new highlighter. Thank you, Mr. Mier, you get an A+ for your help as my speech teacher but an F for saving trees. Tonight Id like to talk to three groupsRead More Graduation Speech Essay1009 Words   |  5 Pagesyou might ever sit through. Most of us, though, and I regret that I am in this group, will sit through many more ceremonies -- ceremonies longer and more tedious that this or anything else you can imagine. If you think this is bad, try a college graduation. Think, that is, attend a wedding. And, if just for a moment you think that that is bad, just be thankful you have never attended or will attend a Bar Mitzvah. The only ceremony I think anybody would truly enjoy attending is a funeral. But, onlyRead More Graduation Speech Essay1115 Words   |  5 Pagesthis graduation speech, several people suggested including a profound quote offering â€Å"encouraging advice to the young graduates†, and then there were others who said, â€Å"eh don’t worry about it, no one listens to those anyway.† Fortunately, I was actually able to take from both suggestions and found a happy balance. You see, I won’t tell you today to: â€Å"Dare to dream† or â€Å"Find your own vision† or even to â€Å"Strive for excellence,† or any trite clichà © that’s ever been said in a graduation speech. SoRead More Graduation Speech Essay1010 Words   |  5 PagesLadies, gentlemen, parents, friends, family, staff, fellow students: Instead of taking up more time and reading my speech, it is available to you at http://www.olen’ Thank you. No, just kidding. But seriously folks... Today we are gathered here to celebrate our graduation from 12 long years of schooling. The education granted to us has been a privilege. One so graciously given to us by the citizens of our state, by our community, and by our parents. Today would not be

Friday, December 13, 2019

American Dream Narrative Free Essays

Georgeanne Harter AP Language and Composition Tlumack – 2X 11 March 2013 My Personal American Dream In the book, The Epic of America, written in the year of 1931, author James Truslow Adams was the first to give a â€Å"clear† definition of what the American Dream really is. He stated that the American Dream is â€Å"that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement† (Truslow 214). Although his definition describes what the American Dream is, it does not explain what everyone’s American Dream is throughout the world. We will write a custom essay sample on American Dream Narrative or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is because each person has their own idea of a perfect life, therefore giving them their own distinct Dream and ways to achieve it. For some people, the ideal and perfect life may mean finally leaving their home country and traveling to America to be successful and prosperous. For others, it may mean getting married, having two beautiful children living in a three bedroom house with a white picket fence. Although several people may have the same outcome they would like to accomplish, it is how they get there that distinguishes them from the rest. As a young, only child, I determined what I wanted my American Dream to be and that was to grow up underneath the influence of my parents and have the perfect family with a dog, but I still have yet to make it there. Sometimes, some people just have to wake up and realize that their American â€Å"Dream† is more like an American â€Å"Nightmare. † I was doing everything in my power to make sure I kept a good realtionship with my mother and father. Seeing as I was only in first grade when I realized what I really wanted my life to be like, I made sure I did everything possible to keep my parents happy, which in turn would be a cause for a good relationship. I was doing well in school and I very rarely ever got into trouble so I figured I was on the right track. It was one day after I came home from a wonderful day at school, when I noticed things at home were rapidly rolling downhill. Immediately, I came home to two annoyed parents, who no sooner became to argue leading to them both screaming at ach other at the top of their lungs. These arguments came to be more frequent. At that point, being so young and an only child, I thought these occurrence were all my fault and thought it would be best to try and fix things. That plan quickly backfired on me when, one day, my father stormed out of the house with rage. I was lost and confused and wanted things to be better so I could continue with my idea of a perfect life, but it seemed as though my parents did not want to partake in my efforts. I figured sooner or later one of them would give in and that ended up being my father. I knew that he still loved me no matter what but he had to get out of the house. He began to realize the mental damage that these arguments were causing me. When I was seven years old, my parents were officially separated and when I found out, it crushed me. Rather than holding my head up high and keeping a positive mindset, I let it hang and attack every perfect thought I ever had in my mind. Immediately following the loss of my father’s presence in the house, I went into a stage of shock. It took me a little while to bounce back because I missed him. He was my best friend and I was his. A while later, the feeling of not wanting to be with my mother grew inside of me, more and more each day I woke, and I was having a hard time figuring out why. Not too long after, my parents officially got divorced. It wasn’t until much later when my family isolated the problem. As hard as it was for me to believe, my mother, Eileen, was actually diagnosed with a mental disorder. It is called Psychosis which is known for its loss of contact with reality. It is marked by delusions, hallucinations, incoherence, and distorted perceptions of reality. Although it was extremely unfortunate for all of us to experience, the disorder answered my question as to why there were so many screaming matches between my parents. Although her mental health was not deteriorating at a fast rate, I quickly realized that I was not interested in living with her anymore. Even though my â€Å"Dream† was pretty much shot, I just was not living my childhood the way I wanted to when I was with her. In the summer of 2006, when I was nine years old, I decided that I missed my father too much and wanted to move in with him. It was nice because I was still attending the same school and still had all the same friends. I loved Eileen very much and I know she loved me too, it’s just that her mental disorder did not allow her to convey it properly. Being at such a young age, I did not realize that she can’t help it. This disorder is who she is and there is really nothing that can stop it. As I tried very hard to free Eileen from my mind, I began to focus more on my school work and continuing my life with my father and it was great. I was the happiest I had been in a very long time. Several months after I had moved in with my father, he told me that he had met someone while he was at work. He had been talking to her for a while without me knowing of it because he wanted to make sure that it was someone he was interested in having in our life before he introduced me to her. Her name is Mya. When I met her, I immediately noticed everything he loved about her. She was and still is a beautiful, intelligent, and strong woman who didn’t let anything or anyone else define her and I quickly understood that those were the reasons why he was so enamored by her. Before really thinking about everything that was so quickly occuring, I was just estatic for my father because he was finding someone to love and is happy with again. I took a step back and realized that I no longer seemed like my father’s first choice, although he told me I was. I was acting extremely immature and began to grow a large attitude towards Mya. In my mind, I had to compete with her for my father’s attention. One evening, the three of us decided to go out for dinner. This way I could get to know Mya a little bit better. Needless to say, I blew up and the three of us had an all time low point. We had a long talk about whether or not I could handle something like this in my life. As I was crying my eyeballs out, I expressed my true feelings; that I really wanted her to stay in my life but more importantly my father’s. I was so happy to see him happy and she was the reason why. We agreed on that night that we would focus on building a family bond because not too long later did my father propose to marry her. In the summer of 2007, my father and I moved to Virginia where Mya lived and the three of us found the best house to move into. I was really grateful for her stepping in and taking over as my mother figure, especially since I was at such a young age. Although I still had several attention and attitude problems, they were becoming far and few in between and we were working on having a great realtionship. It was definitely a difficult task, though. Starting my American Dream over again sounded like a good idea so I did just that. I focused in school and did everything I was supposed to do, making my parents happy and also setting up for a great relationship. To this day, I am still experiencing a struggle with Eileen. Due to her mental state, I have a hard time having the mother-daughter relationship that I have always wanted. Even though I know she cannot help the way she is, I have pretty much ceased all communication with her. Her brain is just not wired the same as mine and there is nothing I can do to change that. We think differently and that hinders my plan to becoming successful. It’s just what’s best at the moment. I have Mya now to look up to and although it will never be the same because she is not my biological mother, it is pretty darn close and that’s all I can ask for. Of course I miss and love Eileen, she’s my mother and always will be, but I have to do what I have to do to ensure that I set up a successful life for myself in the future and keeping her out of my everyday life for the time being will allow me to accomplish that. Back then, I thought thought my life was turning into the American â€Å"Nightmare† but I guess the most recent occurrences was just God’s way in telling me to keep my head up because currently, I am on my way to getting back on track to achieve my American Dream. Works Cited Adams, James Truslow. The Epic of America,. Boston: Little, Brown, and, 1931. 214. Print. How to cite American Dream Narrative, Essays

Monday, December 9, 2019

Accounting Theory and Current Issues Bio Sustainable Feeds Ltd

Question: Discuss about the Accounting Theory and Current Issues for Bio Sustainable Feeds Ltd. Answer: Introduction The research and development activities have become normal part of operations for many organizations. In the cut through competition, it has become really important for the organizations to continually endeavor to explore new products and services. It is the innovation which gives a competitive edge to the organizations, thus, putting efforts in research and development are worthy (ACCA, 2016). From the accounting view point, the research and development poses challenges in front of the accountants. Certain part of the expenses incurred on the research and development are to be expenses in the profit and loss account while certain is capitalized. In this context, a report on the research and development activities being undertaken by Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd has been presented here. This report is mainly focused on the accounting treatment of the research and development expenditure incurred by Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd. Further, the report also covers a discussion on the valuation of patent and accounting treatment of government grant. Apart from this all, the managements assertion made in the prospectus has also been analyzed in this report. Research of BSF Ltd: The Nature and Value to the Society Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd is an Australian company and engaged in the research on sustainable aqua-culture feeds. The company is currently undertaking a research that is focused on finding out the bacteria based fish feed. The research on bacteria based fish feed has been implemented to overcome the problems of earlier research which was to explore plant based feeds. Further, the plant based feed research was undertaken to overcome the problems of fish based feed. However, the plant based feed research not only failed in resolving the problems of fish based feed, but it also added few more new problems. Due to the use of plant based feed, the fish dying rate increased from 1/20th to 1/3rd resulting in loss to the fish producers. Further, good quality human food was required to produce plant based feed, which caused problems for poor people. The food which could have been used by the poor people was now being used in the production of the fish feed. The environmentalists alleged that diversion of the good quality food, which can be used for human consumption; to the production of fish feed is not justifiable. In the opinion of the environmentalists this research will cause imbalance in the society by promoting the rich to become richer and demoting the poor to become poorer. Therefore, it could be inferred that the impact of the plant based research on the society has been adverse. Problems with the Early Research Done by BSF Ltd The company has been carrying on the research activities to find out the sustainable aqua-culture feeds. The sustainable aqua-culture feed means the feed that meets the required specifications in terms of quality and also fulfills the environmental and social needs. Earlier, the company carried out research to explore fish based feed, which could not sustain due to lower conversion rate. The fish based feed had a conversion rate of 1kg high value fish from the consumption of 10 kg fish based feed. Thus, the problem with the fish based feed was of low conversion rate. In order to resolve this problem, the company switched from exploring the fish based feed to plant based feed. In the pant based feed, the use of high quality human food such as canola, corn, soya-bean, and sunflower was to be made. The main focus of the plant based feed research was to increase the conversion rate so that the production of the fishes could be increased. However, this research also failed in achieving increment in the conversion rate. The conversion rate of plant based feed was 1Kg high value fish from consumption of 30Kg good quality plant based feed. Further, the use of plant based feed also increased the dying rate of the fishes from 1/20th to 1/3rd. Apart from that the plant based feed research also failed to meet the environmental and social needs as claimed by the environmentalists. Research and Development: Nature, Differences, and Accounting Treatment As the competition is getting tough day by day therefore the firms are required to maintain uniqueness in their products and services so that more customers could be attracted. In order to explore the new products and services, the firms need to undertake research and development activities (Harris Trainor, 2009). Thus, the primary aim for undertaking research and development activities is to survive from the competition and maintain a sustainable growth. In the present era, it has been observed that the firms incur huge amount of expenses on the research and development activities. The research and development activities have become integral part of the operations of the firms in the present days (Harris Trainor, 2009). The expense on the research and development is one time while the benefits accrue over the number of years, for example, once the patent is developed for the new product or process, the firm will reap the benefits of this patent over the number of years. Thus, from accounting view point, there arises a need to segregate the expense on the research and development in revenue and capital nature. The revenue nature expense on research is charged to the profit and loss account as and when incurred, whereas, the capital nature expense is recognized in the balance sheet as an intangible asset (Weygandt, Kimmel, Kieso, 2009). In this regard, identification as to what part of expense should be charged to the profit and loss account considering it as the revenues nature and what part should be capitalized is crucial. The Australian Accounting Standard 1011, Accounting for Research and Development Cost contains provisions that guide in identifying the revenue and capital nature of the expenses incurred on the research (AASB 1011, 1987). As per the provisions of this AASB, the entire research operations are divided in two phase such as research phase and development phase. Preliminary activities are performed in the research phase, while, substantial activities needed to get the intangible developed are carried out in the development phase. The research phase activities are too basic and preliminary that on completion of the research phase, the outcome of the research could not be predicted with precision (AASB 1011, 1987). The development activities are taken up after completion of the research phase to work on the initial findings (AASB 1011, 1987). The accounting standard states that the activities of the development are significant. As the development phase progresses, the outcome of the research becomes easier to predict with precision. As soon as the development phase activities are completed to the extent that the outcome of the research could be measured reliably, the expense becomes eligible for capitalization in the books. Thus, in order to capitalize the expense of the development phase, the outcome of the research should be visible and clearly predictable (AASB 1011, 1987). Thus, overall it could be inferred that the expenses incurred on the research when the activities are in research phase, should be charged to the profit and loss account in the year in which these are incurred. Further, when the outcome of the research is clear and it is probable that the firms will receive the benefits of the research over the number of years, the expense incurred should be capitalized by recognizing intangible asset in the books. The capitalized expense is then amortized to the profit and loss account proportionate to the accrual of benefits on yearly basis (AASB 1011, 1987). Fair Market Value of Patent The patent is recognized as an intangible asset in the books of accounts of the organization. As per the accounting standard, the patent purchased from other person is recognized at the amount paid to the seller. Thus, the valuation and measurement of the purchased patent is simple. However, the patent generated internally poses problems in front of the management in valuation and measurement. The costs accumulated under the development phase qualifies for capitalization, therefore, initially, the patent is valued and recognized in the books of accounts at the development cost (AASB 138, 2015). However, the revaluation model prescribed in the accounting standard 138 permits revaluation of the intangible asset in the later accounting periods. As per this model, the entities may revalue the intangible assets at the fair market value (AASB 138, 2015). However, there should be in existence an active market so as to enable reliable measurement of the fair value of the intangible asset. The measurement of the fair value of the intangible asset is a subjective matter. The fair value of an asset implies the amount that can be received by the buyer on selling the asset to the seller in an open market. Alternatively, the fair value could also be ascertained by discounting the future cash benefits that will accrue to the entity from the use of intangible asset (AASB 138, 2015). As per the principles of accounting and finance, the fair of the patent can be determined by discounting the expected cash benefits accruing to the entity. Applying this method to the current case of Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd, the fair value of patent has been determined as under: Case-1: When Sold in 2 Years Year Cash Flows ($M) PVF@8% Present Value ($M) 1 200.00 0.93 185.19 2 700.00 0.86 600.14 Total 785.32 Case-2: When Used for 10 Years Year Cash Flows ($M) PVF@8% Present Value ($M) 1 200.00 0.93 185.19 2 200.00 0.86 171.47 3 200.00 0.79 158.77 4 200.00 0.74 147.01 5 200.00 0.68 136.12 6 200.00 0.63 126.03 7 200.00 0.58 116.70 8 200.00 0.54 108.05 9 200.00 0.50 100.05 10 200.00 0.46 92.64 Total 1,342.02 There are two cases, in the first case, the company is expected to the sell the patent in second year, while, in the second case, the company intends to use the patent for 10 years. In the first case, the fair value of the patent is worked out to be $785.32 million, while, in the second case, the fair value of the patent is worked out to be $1,342.02 million. The fair value that is to be used for recognition of the patent in the financial statements of Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd will depend on the dominant intention of the company. If the company intends to use the patent, the fair value will be used as arrived in the second case, on the other hand, if the company intends to sell it in two years, the fair value as arrived in the first case will be used. Journal Entries for RD Transactions and Explanation for Treatment of Grant Journal Entries for the RD Transactions From 2013 to 2016 Year Description Debit (AUD$ M) Credit (AUD$ M) 2013 Research and Development Expense 360.00 Cash 360.00 (Research expense on plant based fish feed paid) Profit and Loss Account 360.00 Research and Development Expense 360.00 (Research expense on plant based fish feed charged to profit and loss account) Cash 500.00 Government Grant 500.00 (Grant received from CSIRO) Government Grant 340.00 Profit and Loss Account 340.00 (Grant credited to profit and loss account to the extent of expenditure on research) 2014 Nil 2015 Nil 2016 Research and Development Expense 160.00 Cash 160.00 (Research expense on bacteria based fish feed paid) Profit and Loss Account 160.00 Research and Development Expense 160.00 (Research expense on bacteria based fish feed charged to profit and loss account) Government Grant 160.00 Profit and Loss Account 160.00 (Grant credited to profit and loss account to the extent of expenditure on research) In relation to the research, BSF Ltd has received a grant of $500 million from CSIRO which is a government agency. Accounting standard 120 prescribes the accounting treatment of the government grant in the books of the receiver (AASB 120, 2009). According to the provisions contained in this standard, the government grant if received for the intangible assets that has been developed can be deducted from the carrying amount of the respective asset. However, if the government grant has been received but the intangible asset has not been developed yet, the entity may chose to credit to the profit and loss account to the extent the expense on research has been was debited to the profit and loss account (AASB 120, 2009). In the current case of Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd, it can be observed that the company received grant in the year 2013. The expense on the research and development activities incurred by the company in the year 2013 amounted to $360 million. However, the company utilized $340 million from the grant receipts; therefore, $340 million has been credited to the profit and loss account in the year 2013. In the year 2014 and 2015, the company did not incur any expense on the research and development operations. In the year 2016, the company undertook a new research called bacteria based feed research and incurred a sum of $160 million on the research and development activities in relation to this research. The amount remained in the grant account also stands at $160 million in the year 2016. Therefore, the whole remaining amount in the grant account has been credited to the profit and loss account in the year 2016. Evaluation of the Managements Assertion Made in the Prospectus in Regard to Patent The prospectus of Bio-sustainable Feeds (BSF) Ltd contains a statement that company holds exclusive control over the bacteria based feeds technology. In this regard, it is the responsibility of the accountant to determine the fairness of this statement made in the prospectus before affixing his signatures (Gaeremynck Vermoesen, 2009). The prospectus is a highly sensitive document as the public at large makes investment in the company based on the evaluation of the prospectus. Thus, the accountant should satisfy himself to the fullest that the assertions or statements made in the prospectus are genuine and true (Gaeremynck Vermoesen, 2009). BSF Ltd is currently undertaking a research to explore the bacteria based feed. It is projected that this research will require a sum of $360 million in all to explore the technology that will be used for producing the bacteria based feed. The research is in initial years, which is evident from the fact that the company is yet to undertake the development phase activities on this research. The company has incurred a sum of $160 million on this research till now and it is expected that another $200 million will be required to be sent in the upcoming years. Thus, it could be observed that the substantial part of the research is yet to complete in respect of bacteria based research being undertaken by BSF Ltd. As per the provisions of AASB 138, the entity can not recognize intangible asset in the books unless it is ensured that the future economic benefits will flow to it from the use of such asset (AASB 138, 2015). Further, it is provided that the completion of the substantial part of the development phase activities is considered as an indication that the entity will receive the economic benefits from the intangible asset being developed. Thus, unless the substantial part of the development phase activities is complete, the entity can not recognize intangible asset in the books (AASB 138, 2015). In the case of BSF Ltd, the company has completed only the research phase activities in relation to the bacteria based research, while, the development phase is still to be initiated. Therefore, the company can not recognize patent in the books of accounts. The whole expenditure of $160 million is to be charged to the profit and loss account in the current year. Thus, the assertion made in the prospectus by the management of BSF Ltd is not tenable. References AASB 1011. 1987. Accounting for Research and Development Costs. Retrieved September 17, 2016, from AASB 120. (2009). Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance. Retrieved September 17, 2016, from AASB 138. (2015). Intangible assets. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from ACCA. (2016). Research and Development. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from Gaeremynck, A. Vermoesen, R. (2009). Guidelines to the Auditor in Prospectus and Other Related Engagements. Maklu. Harris, R. Trainor, M. (2009). Why Do Some Firms Undertake RD Whereas Others Do Not? Retrieved September 16, 2016, from Weygandt, J.J., Kimmel, P.D., and Kieso, D.E. (2009). Financial Accounting. John Wiley Sons.

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Global Business Standards Codex

Question: Evaluate business conduct in the clothing, textile and footwear industries using three ethical principles of the Global Business Standards Codex. Answer: Introduction The scenario of business conduct among the footwear, textile and clothing industries have drastically changed due to the shift in consumer demands. Besides that the consumers have also changed their perceptions with time .They initially had views that quality can be found in developing nations; further they shifted to the ones with whom they were happy and finally they took back their views on the assumed quality. One of main cause for this change in mind is to meet the needs of fast fashion. This further gave rise to certain issues like exchanging or taking bribes, the citizenship principle and workers exploitation;all these factors basically concentrate on the dignity principle of Global Business Standards Codex. Apart from that the debate is in place regarding conduct of business within the industries and majorly within the developing countries .This can further help to provide a basic tool for the employee's economic growth in developing nations. This essay will further evaluate the principles of global business standard for the following industries (Study Mouse, 2016) In order to have respectful working conditions it is not enough to have only a code of conduct. Good and ethical practices should be implemented in a particular enterprise or inside the workshops of individual subcontractors.. Further the monitoring of the application code of conduct decides its credibility and further leads to the generation of favorable environment of opinions within the consumers. Basically there are two types of monitoring one is active monitoring and another is contractual monitoring. The most credible and applicable way of monitoring is usually done by supervising the application within the rules of code of conduct and this will remain as an independent body: local or international non-governmental organizations, religious associations, consumer associations or specialized consultancy enterprises.(Mikhael, 2016) The main agenda is to find equilibrium where the organizations are able to develop manufacturing and production relationships within the nations. But at the same time it is still trying to focus on socially responsible conduct. Apart from that over the longer time period the obstacles and distance between the nations have dropped the importance for clothing , textile and footwear industries. The cost of the freight became cheaper and on global scale the transportation also improved, this provides a platform and ability for the organizations to open the production and manufacturing opportunities in various other countries. Consumers demanding for clothes in fabric industry usually replicate that they are searching for recent trends. Moreover in order to fulfill the requirements of fast fashion the industries have shifted towards cheaper manufacturing and production of materials. These industries continue to develop with the developing nations, it is estimated that approximately ninety percent of firms producing garments suggest that bribes to government is one of the issue which cannot be avoided(Cahan, 2003) . As we all know that the organizations usually give bribes so that they can avoid bureaucratic delays. Further these are the payments which go against Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) rules; they were started by the organizations with specific reference to citizenship principle within the Global Business Standards Codex. However Activists argue that the system is entirely corrupted and it doesn't have the ability to resolve these issues of bribery. It is very important that the business should strictly abide by the rules of CSR measures further within the principles of sound citizenship the organizations requires to change their perspective regarding buying the bureaucratic officials for their individual motive accomplishment and this will further let the operations work effectively. It is further said that if the developing nation's government improve their administrative services, then the bribery rates can be decreased by the firms. This will also help to reduce the bribery fu rther cooperating and conducting business will be much easier in these developing nations which will also increase competition to large extent. The expansion of these industries led to focus on development in the developing nations. Further there was a debate which stated that this level of globalization brings burgeoning issues which are usually surrounded by worker's exploitation and the spread of sweatshops. The expansion took place due to assumption based completive advantage of undertaking operations in the developing nations. Another important issue is exploitation of workers The exploitation of workers is not taken seriously by the organizations who are involved in business conducts within these communities. Further highlights states lack of minimum salary, high levels of union's participations and the incapability of unions to protect the employee's rights led to the worsening of employee conditions(Floyd Fowler, 2009).The grievances of the workers in the developed and developing nations are highlighted by the Non Government Organization (NGO).These organizations tries to protect the dignity and rights of workers. They have also asked the companies to take individual responsibilities of their labor practices with the help of independent monitoringin their factories(Helfat, Martin, 2014) Codes generally states directives to pertain the duties of citizenship as well as their violations which includes law,freeloading, and bribing public officials. But one also needs to understand that the indifference frequently categorize the bureaucratic system. Further it implements a readiness to engage with the other parties which is further affected by the organization's activities or they may have a claim which is justified and required paid attention(Jones, 2001). Creating and implementing codes in the Global Business Standards reflects the findings and standards of conducts. At its basic level one can find the standards which are surrounded by a wide agreement. These are some of the rules and regulations which are discussed in the above paragraphs in order to help the company follow the ethical steps. These steps should be taken in order to determine employee's security. Not only the companies but every nation should ensure that the worker's rights are not violated in any case as they are the main backbone in these kinds of industries. Thus it's very important for the industry to satisfy them in both the developed and developing nations. Bibliography Study Mouse, 2016 Three ethical principles of the Global Business Standards Codex Essay[Online ]Available at: Mikhael, S . , 2016 .Evaluate Business Conduct in the Clothing, Textile and Footwear Industries Using Three Ethical Principles of the Global Business Standards Codex.[Online] Available at: Cahan, J., 2003. Mini-lecture on writing a critique- effective acade. [Online] Available at: Floyd, J. Fowler, J., 2009. Survey Research Methods. 4th ed. Nashville: SAGE. Helfat, C.E. Martin, J.A., 2014. Dynamic Managerial Capabilities: Review and Assessment ofManagerial Impact on Strategic Change. Journal of Management, 41(5), pp.1281-312. Hutchison, A. Boxall, P., 2014. The critical challenges facing New Zealands chief executives: implications for management skills. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 52, pp.23-41. Jones, B.J., 2001. Rhetoric and composition. [Online] Available at: 22 [Accessed October 2016]. Lislie, J.D., 2011. The Benefits and challenges of Mixing Methods and Methodologies: Lessons Learnt From Implementing Qualitatively Led Mixed Methods Research Designs in Trinidad and Tobago. Caribbean Curriculum, 18, pp.87-120. Metcalfe, M., 2002. Preparing a critique of an article: Using argument as an inquiry. [Online] Available at: Purdue University, 2016. Writing a Thesis Statement. [Online] Available at:

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Human Genome Project Essay Paper Example For Students

The Human Genome Project Essay Paper The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international research effort to chart and characterize the human genome; the entire package of genetic instructions for a human being. That entails laying out, in order the 3 billion DNA letters (or base pairs) of the full human genetic code. The Human Genome Project began in 1990. It was originally planned to take 15 years to complete but because of technological advance it should be complete by the year 2003. The eight goals of the project include deciphering the human genetic code, or DNA sequence and rapidly providing this data freely and without restrictions to the scientific community and the public. From 1990 when the HGP began until 1996, genetic and physical maps of the human chromosomes and other resources were developed because they were needed to sequence human DNA at relatively low cost and high accuracy. We will write a custom essay on The Human Genome Project Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The physical and genetic maps provide landmarks that help scientists navigate the 3 billion pairs of bases, or DNA letters, on the human chromosomes. These maps also have helped scientists hunting for genes even before the working draft sequence. The second goal is to develop efficient technology to sequence human DNA. The third goal is to identify the variations in the human genetic code that underlie disease susceptibility, particularly the most common variations that are called SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). The forth goal is to interpret the function of DNA sequence on a genomic scale determining how individual genes and groups of genes work together in health and disease. The fifth goal is to be able to decipher and analyze the genetic code of model organisms such as yeast, roundworm, fruit fly and mouse. The sixth goal is to examine the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genome research, identifying barriers to the integration of the results of the HGP into health care, and proposing and implementing solutions as appropriate. The seventh goal is to develop bio informative tools and computational strategies for the collection, analysis, annotation and storage of the ever-increasing amounts of DNA mapping and sequencing and gene expression data. The eighth goal is to training scientists for genomic research and analysis. Bibliography: