Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Case Study For Health and Addictive Behaviour Psychology - Essay Example It is estimated that about 2.6million people suffer from this condition in the UK (Diabetes UK, 2010). There are basically 2 types of diabetes mellitus and they are type-1 and type-2. In type-1 DM, the onset is in young age like childhood, adolescence or even early adulthood. It occurs due to absolute deficiency of insulin as a result of destruction of the beta-cells in the pancreas. On the other hand, type-2 DM occurs mainly in adults, especially in older people and is mainly predisposed by several factors including sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Type-2 accounts for more than 85 percent cases of diabetes (Diabetes UK, 2010). Hereditary factors play an important role in this type of diabetes, either due to genetic predisposition or due to similar behavioral patterns in the families like sedentary lifestyle and eating habits. DM-2 occurs due to a combination of decreased secretion of beta cells in the pancreas and increased peripheral resistance to insulin at tissue-receptor level ( Votey, 2005). DM-2 is the most common type of diabetes. It is managed by pharmacotherapy and appropriate diet and exercise. Diet and exercise have a major role to play in the treatment of diabetes-2. Adam was diagnosed with diabetes type-2 9 months ago. He has been advised to control his blood sugar levels with appropriate diet and exercise, rather than initiating antidiabetic medications. Antihypoglycemic therapy is initiated only when it is not possible to control diabetes through diet and exercise (Diabetes UK, 2010). It is very important to treat and control diabetes because of the notorious complications associated with it. Adam is obese and has been advised to reduce his weight. The main defect in diabetes type-2 is the inability of the tissues to respond to insulin. There is also decreased production of insulin by pancreas. Both these amount to increased glucose levels in the blood, known as hyperglycemia. An important causative factor is obesity. This is more so when obesity is more around the waist, known as central obesity (Votey, 2005). Obesity leads to decreased resistance of tissues to insulin. The fatty acid and triglyceride levels are high and these further interfere with insulin signaling. Another important aspect in obesity which influences the development of diabetes is dysregulation of the secretion of adipokine which is a hormone that causes peripheral resistance to insulin and contributes to the development of diabetes. Thus, obesity has a major role to play in the development of the most common form of diabetes, type-2 diabetes. 1.2 Complications of Diabetes Diabetes leads to increased catabolism and decreased anabolism. After reaching the renal threshold level of 180mg per dl, glucosuria occurs. This contributes to polyuria and polydipsia. Decreased levels of glucose in the cells contributes to delay in the healing of the wounds and also development of recurrent infections. it also causes lipolysis for generation of energy. Lipolysis cau ses an increase in the free fatty acid levels whih are taken up by the liver. Metabolism of free fatty acids in the liver yields ketone bodies, hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid. As the production of ketone bodies increases, metabolic acidosis ensues, resulting in dehydration. Infact, in many cases, diabetic ketoacidosis is the first presentation and it can turn fata due to development of cerebral edema. Increased lipolysis can
Managing Entrepreneurial Enterprises' Individual Entrepreneurship Interview - Essay Example I always like seeing things being done the right way and thus, I prefer employing myself in order to control my business my own way. In my business, I can make my own rules without consulting any person except my employees Charantimath, 2006, 23). Secondly, I like being independent with my own goals and objectives that I have set to achieve. Individuality is a characteristic that enables me to be to stand even when faced with challenges without expecting help form any person. Therefore, as an entrepreneur I can be totally independent without sharing profits or losses with anyone. How do you security in your business? I am a goal oriented person. Setting goals gives a person assurance and security at work since, when the goals are accomplished; it implies that it cannot fail at given time. An entrepreneur has to be focused at achieving his or her goals since; a business is driven by the goals (Eric, 2012, 12). Without goals, the employment security of the employer is at stake and can fail anytime. How do you manage to succeed in your business? First I am a disciplined person. I do not waste time on issues that might lead to failure of my business. I am also punctual in my work. I ensure that all my projects are completed within the speculated time. Discipline also helps me to keep deadlines and be serious with every part of the business (Bridge, 2010, 35). It is also a factor that helps me to ensure that there is no wastage of resources in the business. Therefore, as an entrepreneur, I have managed to succeed through ensuring that every line of work is well coordinated without taking any part for granted. How do you manage to keep your business running despite the stiff competition in the technology industry? The main strategy that I use is creativity and innovativeness. Entrepreneurship is all about generating of new and unique ideas in order to challenge those of competitors. For instance, in the technology industry I have to ensure that I am updated on all th e updated technology such as new brands of computers and laptops. I also have to innovate new ways of repairing different parts of the instruments. This helps me to attract new customers and provide them with quality services (Under30CEO, 2010, 65). One character trait that also helps me manage the competition is being a risk taker. As a risk taker, I can take advantage of different opportunities in life without fearing the possible losses. This way I can come up with quality features that can be used in building my business. For instance, purchasing laptops in bulk from foreign countries is extremely risky since; one is never certain if the laptops will be purchased by customers. However, as an entrepreneur, I have to take the risk since; that way I will increase my profits. This character is also supported by the fact that I am an opportunistic person. How do you ensure that, as an entrepreneur, opportunities do not pass you by? I take advantage of the different opportunities that my competitors may be ignoring. This way, my business can thrive above others since I will be equipped with unique ideas (Rex Bookstore, 2012, 45). I am also a thinker; I find my way out of the hard parts of the business that I may face. For instance, if a laptop has been repaired and it is not yet working, as an entrepreneur I have to think of the probable cause of the problem. Therefore, as an entrepreneur I cannot afford to run out of ideas at any one point in time. This has also helped to be above my competitors since; while other companies might tell
Monday, October 28, 2019
The origin and destination of migrants Essay Analyse the economic, environmental, social and demographic impacts of migration at both the origin and destination of migrants. Migration is a movement and refers to a permanent change of home. It can also be used with different scales to include temporary changes involving seasonal and daily movements both between countries and within a country. Migration will affect the distribution of people over a given area as well as the total population of a region and the population structure of a country or city. The changes caused by migration are also directly related to the causes of migration itself. For example, forced migration can be caused by religious or political reasons. When people leave because of this, there is likely to be less resistance in the area and so the views or actions, which forced citizens away, are likely to escalate. Other forced issues include overpopulation as found in China, famine suffered by Ethiopians in the Sudan, and environmental factors for example Chernobyl in the Ukraine. At the origin of migration, the effects will be mixed depending on the influences. On a national scale, migration can be both beneficial and disadvantageous. In the UK, internal migration is commonly due to several factors, including retirement where people who have served all their working days in urban surroundings and move to the quiet of rural areas, often on the coast, or moving to find a better quality of life or the relocation of business where people may be able to run their business from a remote location, or require movement to an area with improvement telecommunications or similar. As a result of this, agriculturally based work opportunities are declining as farms become even larger and more mechanised. Local housing becomes too expensive for local people and is bought by commuters. Demand for local services such as local shop and post office can cause them to close and people have to travel to urban areas making living in the country side more expensive. These effects work both ways however. The effect on those moving from rural to urban locations can be very beneficial. Businesses moving into urban areas are at an advantage because they will generally have access to better communication infrastructure and more valuable land and pool of staff to choose from. This still occurs despite financial incentives from the Government, which have been brought on by the worry of overcrowding of the major UK cities and the risk of the urban area becoming saturated, whereas the rural countryside can be much more scenically acceptable to the workforce. On an international scale, some countries view emigration as a direct cure for possible high unemployment rates. Whilst this may look good as a figure written down and a positive fact for the Government to use to show how they have cut unemployment, conversely if too many citizens emigrate who are also skilled workers then this could lead to labour shortages throughout the countrys profitable industry with which they would use both in country and export for extra global economic wealth. This is known as the brain-drain. If this were to happen, then the country would need to adopt a policy completely the opposite and import workers. Malaysia has suffered from this and has contracted Indonesians to live, some temporarily, in the country and work on construction projects and agricultural areas. These workers are filling the deficit that was left by Malaysian citizens leaving the country for Singapore and the Far East. In this situation, the push factors far outweigh the pull. The demography, social makeup of the source country will be affected too. Different ages and sexes are likely to show different characteristics and influence the area in different ways. For example, young adult in their reproductive years are more likely to move. The origin will then suffer a general decrease in birth rate because of less young frivolous males and females of childbearing age. This will inevitably lead to the average age of the population becoming higher increasing the death rate. An older population will also have an effect on their dependency on others. Older people will directly and indirectly put new pressures on transport, health and residential services, which will invariably change the social side of a settlement or country. Less industry and business will result although coastal and rural areas may benefit from tourism. The load on the remaining community would be high, and would be worsened if more of one gender migrated than the other forcing a lop-sided population pyramid. Sex selective migration can aid in disrupting family life and marriage patterns. This is demonstrated by the fact that of all households in the world, a woman heads one in three. The reasons for this are twofold. Firstly, the adult males may have died, maybe through war or natural disaster, with the wife outliving her husband. Secondly, the majority of women are without men because of migration. The men may have moved to other areas in search of better living standards for themselves or their family, better job prospects, or other economic advantages with which they can support the family elsewhere. An example of this occurring was the mass movement of young unmarried Irishmen last century. The average age of marriage for women rose and resulted in an ever-increasing proportion of those who never married, which will have affected the country severely. The population would have shrunk with a smaller male population and less couples producing families to continue replacement, and so birth rate falls. The environment will also be affected. If the area was heavily agricultural, then the effect of people moving away will be such that their will be less man-power in the area to tend to the land. This means that the land would be left unused and produce in the area will decline. In areas where subsistence farming is common, this would spell disaster for local residents whose food supply would diminish. If land is left unused then it loses its fertility therefore it is unlikely that the land would be able to be used to the same extent later on. This puts a rapid stop to any chance of sustainable development in the short-term future, although in the long-term the availability of fertiliser or nutrients to add to the land may help, but these come at a price. In many countries it is almost tradition that the young male or males of the family will provide and tend for all other members, including their sisters and elders. In communities where this is true, parents will often try to have as many children as they can because they know that their offspring will get jobs in their early teens and then be able to support their parents until old age. Traditionally also, parents have hoped for male offspring as opposed to female because males are more likely to get a job and earn more money to financially support his parents in the future. The problem that has been evident and one that is a growing concern is that young males are now migrating from their native lands or regions in search of better job prospects. Their ambitions are taking them away from their family unit, and when they reach their new urban destination they will either get a job and send some money back home if the infrastructure of the country supports; but if they cannot find employment then they still do not return to the rural areas because of embarrassment and failure to help their families. At the migrants destination, many of the same effects apply. The most obvious effect at the destination is that there is suddenly an increase in population. Because it is usually males of working age who move, there is now a huge pool of potentially cheap labour; and they tend to accept poorly paid and often menial jobs with little security. Whilst this is advantageous both to employers and to the migrants themselves who are provided with a source of income, migrants can be viewed as a burden upon their new homeland especially during times of recession. Many are joined by their families and thus make demands upon health, education, housing and welfare benefits. With an increase in population, there will be increase pressure on housing and accommodation. There are increasing numbers of migrants who are unable to find accommodation in the place to which they move; this forces them to live on the streets in shanties, refuge camps, or on a smaller scale. When joined by their wives and only at a much later stage by older relatives, by which time children may also have been born to them, this will drastically affect the demography of the area or country. It will create a huge imbalance of age and sex groups at the destination and also reverse patterns at their origin. Immigration however can play an important role in population growth. It can influence natural increase since most immigrants are of childbearing age, but sheer volume is also significant. For example, ten years of immigration to the USA accounted for over a half of the nations growth. There are currently approximately 1,500,000 forced migrants seeking refuge in the USA from countries such as El Salvador, Guatemala and Vietnam. In contrast to this, some cases migration has led to the reduction of native populations. Historically, when nations like Spain began to colonise the New World they took with them diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox and as a result the indigenous populations dropped by two thirds. Hartman, of the London School of Economics stated that, Some argue that population growth is the greatest single limit to economic growth and the continued survival of the earths ecological systems. In other words, scarcity of resources is made worse by the increasing demand from a growing population for resources such as water, fuel, and a clean environment. In reality, this resource scarcity can lead to enhanced conflict and the breakdown on cooperative action. Such stresses can have a negative effect of health and changing consumption patterns and can also lead to wars and violent conflict leading to increased migration and the creation of so called environmental refugees. The social impact of migrants is probably the most contentious and important. International migration can lead to racial tension. Despite the enrichment of the country brought about by immigrants (artistic, theatrical, sporting, commercial, administrative and industrial, for example), resentment and even anger can be directed at such groups who see themselves as long-standing citizens, resulting in racism. It is often directed at easily identifiable groups and this behaviour is likely to be brought about by the unfortunate desire for individuals to protect their territory. At best, the situation fades out as the groups are accepted into society. At worst, the racism holds that the immigrants, no matter how long-standing they may be, are a threat to the well being of the nation, and are encouraged by one means or another to leave. If the group is not socially resilient, then there should, theoretically, be no problem with racism on any level.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Psychological Effects of Imprisonment on Young Offenders The aim of this dissertation is to examine the claim of authors such as Harrington and Bailey (2005) that a substantial proportion of young offenders in the UK suffer from severe mental illness. In accepting this claim, the secondary aim of this paper is to glean a greater understanding of why this is the case; do these offenders acquire mental illness as a result of the modern prison regime and regardless, why is the modern youth justice system so ineffective in dealing with this seemingly widespread problem? The researcher of this paper shall argue that the currentyouth justice system needs, if it to achieve one of its primary aims,namely to rehabilitate youth offenders and prevent them from becomingrecidivists, to focus their research and practice more heavily on thepsychological processes which cause a young person to offend, so thatsuch offenders, who are clearly suffering from mental problems, can bemore easily identified and, where possible, positively helped toresolve these issues whilst they are serving their custodial sentencesso that upon release these individuals are more likely to desist fromcriminality. The principle methodology of this paper will be a literature review,a review of both primary and secondary sources from the subject fieldsof forensic psychology, criminology and penology. Introduction: The primary issue which will be raised and explored throughout thisdissertation is the contention that the current youth justice system,and in particular the youth prison system, is failing to adequatelyaddress the psychological needs (or as they are described by manycriminologists: Ã¢â¬Ëcriminogenic needsÃ¢â¬â¢) of youth offenders in the UK.Such an argument necessarily involves a simultaneous examination notonly of the statistics which are available regarding the prevalence ofmental illness in youth prisons and the rates of recidivism of thoseyouths who have been previously sentenced to immediate custody, butalso an examination of the latest psychological research in prisons,the current (and, to a lesser extent, historical) policies andpractices pertaining to the Ã¢â¬ËtreatmentÃ¢â¬â¢ of those imprisoned offenderswho have been diagnosed with mental illness and also the writings ofexpert researchers in these relevant fields who provide originalinterpretative insights into the problems associated with mentalillness in youth offenders and potential approaches to minimise thisapparent epidemic. The structure of this review shall take the following form: Thisdissertation will commence with a brief overview of past and presentsystems of caring for children serving custodial sentences and howtheir mental health needs were and are now met, including anexamination of the changing definition of Ã¢â¬ËneedsÃ¢â¬â¢ in this context. Theresearcher, using research from government enquires, literature andreports concerned with this issue will then seek to identify thoseyouth justice policies and practices which are apparently ineffectiveand/or inappropriate in reducing this problem and, in conclusion, makerecommendations for future necessary/ effective reforms and also futureresearch which should be conducted to assist in our understanding ofthe psychological causes of crime and to assist in the formulation ofsuch reforms. The researcher of this paper is greatly interested in the subject ofthis paper: After reading in Society Guardian articles about our youngprison population the researcher was surprised to learn that there areover 11,000 young people between 15-20 in jail in England and Waleswith a diagnosable mental disorder, that 10% will suffer a severepsychotic disorder in comparison with 0.2% of the general populationand that the UK has the highest number of prisoners under 21, incomparison with the rest of Europe, 3000 of them being held in youthoffenders institutes. Similar surprise ensued from discover of researchconducted by the UK Office for National Statistics which found thatnine out of ten youth offenders in the UK suffer from a mentaldisorder. The researcher feels strongly that more research needs to beconducted into these issues so that these worrying findings can bediluted; it is primarily for this reason that the researcher has chosento conduct this research on that topic. Intending t o pursue a career inthe youth justice system working with young offenders in the UK, theresearcher also feels strongly that a deeper substantive knowledge inthis area will aid not merely his professional development but also hisability to help reduce the incidence of mental disorder in the UK youthjustice system. The researcher concedes that the objectives of this research didchange direction at various points of the review: Initially, the aimwas to identify the current practical failings of the youth justicesystem and to convincingly demonstrate that these failings directly orindirectly contribute to the problematic prevalence of mental illnessin youth offenders and to likewise suggest practical reforms whichshould be employed to reduce this phenomenon; latterly, the researcherunderstood that rather than suggesting changes in practical reform thathe should attempt to identify the failings in the current research andthe strategies employed by the justice system, and to suggestalternative strategies and ideas for future research which will then inturn result in more effective justice practice. The structure of this paper, as described in paragraph two of thisintroduction, has been carefully constructed to complement itsarguments: the historical analysis of trends in UK penal policy andpractice (pertaining to youth offenders) over the past fifty years,with which this paper will commence, provides ample support for thelater contention that the current approach employed by the youthjustice system in the UK to reduce the incidence of mental illness inits prisons is inadequate and also for those policy reforms which willbe recommended by the researcher in this paperÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusions. The Structure of the Literature Review: As noted previously in the introduction, above, the literaturereview of this paper will not confine itself to any one particulardiscipline; after all, the subjects of criminology, forensicpsychology, social work and, to some extent, penology are havededicated varying proportions of their research on the issues withwhich this paper is concerned; namely the prevalence of mental illnessin young offenders in the UK Youth Justice system, in particular thoseoffenders currently serving custodial sentences in young offendersinstitutes, and practical methods for reducing this problematicphenomenon. A clear concern to any researcher conducting amulti-disciplinary literature review of this kind is that the order ofthe analysis is prone to be confusing; a researcher could choose toperform a separate review of the literature from each respectivesubject area or, alternatively, a researcher might choose to make nosuch division but rather separate the review into the relevantquestions and under each separate heading utilize the literature fromany relevant discipline in no particular order. The researcher of thispaper has chosen to adopt the latter of these two approaches; he feelsthat to divide the review analysis according to topic area is whollyartificial, especially in light of the fact that any research orliterature which will be discussed will be wholly relevant to the sameissues pertaining to young offenders. With this methodological approach in mind, the questions which thisliterature review will seek to discuss and, where possible, answer, areas follows: 1] What is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëmental illnessÃ¢â¬â¢ and how has this definition changed over the past 60 years? 2] How prevalent is mental illness in young offenders who arecurrently serving custodial sentences in young offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ institutes inthe UK? 3] To what extent is this a recent phenomenon? And to what extent isthis a phenomenon which is particular to young offenders serving asentence in a secure institution rather than to those young offenderswho are serving non-custodial sentences or those young persons who havenot been involved in the Youth Justice system at all? 4] Historically, how has the UK Youth Justice System responded tothe problem of mental illness in young offenders who are currentlyserving custodial sentences in young offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ institutes? 5] Is there convincing evidence which suggests that there is linkbetween this prevalence of mental illness and the high rates ofrecidivism in young offenders serving custodial sentences? 6] What is the approach which is currently employed by the UK Youth Justice System to tackle this problem? 7] To what extent is the current policy approach of the UK YouthJustice System appropriate in achieving its objectives in this regard? 8] How is this policy approach being implemented by the UK Youth Justice System? 9] Are these practical reforms appropriate in light of the policyapproach adopted to reduce the incidence of mental illness in youthoffenders in the UK? 10] What changes should be made to the current policy and practiceof the UK Youth Justice System to effect a more successful reduction ofthis problem? 11] What further academic research is needed to assist in the formulation of these new policies and practices? 1] What is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëmental illnessÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëmental healthÃ¢â¬â¢ and how has this definition changed over the past 60 years? Any literature review on the prevalence of Ã¢â¬Ëmental illnessÃ¢â¬â¢ in aparticular population, in this case young offenders serving custodialsentences, would be incomplete without a preliminary discussionpertaining to the definition of Ã¢â¬Ëmental illnessÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëmental healthÃ¢â¬â¢ inthat context. Within the context of young offenders, it is interesting to notethat there is very little consistency in the definition of Ã¢â¬ËmentalhealthÃ¢â¬â¢: In fact, Ã¢â¬Ëa review of over 60 national and local education,health and social care documents (policy, strategy and guidance)revealed little consistency within, as well as, across agencies. Therewere 10 different terms or phrases used to label the positive end ofthe mental health continuum and 15 to describe the negativeÃ¢â¬â¢ [JointCommissioning Strategy for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Servicesin Kent, Draft Report, 15th January 2007, p6]. This having been said, it does not seem that the definition of Ã¢â¬ËmentalhealthÃ¢â¬â¢ in this context is particularly contentious. The Kent andMedway Multi Agency CAMHS Strategy Group have provided a workingdefinition which incorporates each of the individual definitions foundduring their literature review of relevant policy documents: Ã¢â¬ËMentalhealth can be defined as: The ability to develop psychologically,emotionally, intellectually and spiritually, to initiate, develop andsustain mutually satisfying personal relationships, including theability to become aware of others and to empathise with them, and theability to use psychological distress as a developmental process, sothat it does not hinder or impair further developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ [JointCommissioning Strategy for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Servicesin Kent, Draft Report, 15th January 2007, p6].Ã However, to find a comprehensive definition of Ã¢â¬Ëmental illnessÃ¢â¬â¢ in thiscontext is not so straightforward: It would seem that practitioners inthe field of forensic psychology have divided mental ill-health intothree separate categories separated on the basis of severity ofsymptoms; namely, Ã¢â¬Ëmental health problemsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëmental health disordersÃ¢â¬â¢and Ã¢â¬Ëmental illnessÃ¢â¬â¢. Mental health problems, the least serious form of mental ill-health,Ã¢â¬Ëmay be reflected in difficulties and/or disabilities in the realms ofpersonal relationships, psychological development, the capacity forplay and learning and in distress and maladaptive behaviour. They arerelatively common, and may or may not be persistentÃ¢â¬â¢ [JointCommissioning Strategy for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Servicesin Kent, Draft Report, 15th January 2007, p6]. Mental health disorder is the term subscribed to those persons whoare suffering from persistent mental health problems which affect theirfunctioning on a day-to-day basis. Whilst most young people will atsome stage in their development suffer from mental health problems, itis not normal to expect such persons to suffer from mental healthdisorders. As noted by the Kent and Medway Multi Agency CAMHS StrategyGroup, mental health disorder, as a term, Ã¢â¬Ë[implies] a marked deviationfrom normality, a clinically recognised set of symptoms or behaviourassociated in most cases with considerable distress and substantialinterference with personal functions or developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ [JointCommissioning Strategy for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Servicesin Kent, Draft Report, 15th January 2007, p6]. Finally, mental illness, the most serious of the three forms ofmental ill-health, can be recognized in those young persons sufferingfrom severe clinical psychosis or neurosis, e.g. those suffering fromschizophrenia. These definitions provide a clear and useful taxonomy from which wecan begin to analyse the statistics on the prevalence of mentalill-health in young offenders in the UK. However, before we commencethis analysis, it is first important to briefly examine the perceivedhistorical relationship between mental ill-health and crime ; afterall, it has often been the case in the past that societies across theworld have attributed certain (if not all) aspects of criminality tosymptoms of mental ill-health, in particular mental disorder and mentalillness. For example, The USSR during the Cold War often incarceratedpolitical Ã¢â¬ËcriminalsÃ¢â¬â¢ on the basis that they must be mentally insanefor holding such opinions and beliefs. Whilst the above example would shock most people of today, thisphenomenon is not that far removed from how the UK government hastraditionally treated the mentally ill: Ã¢â¬ËIn the UK, mental health carewas for decades provided only in large Ã¢â¬ËasylumsÃ¢â¬â¢ keeping Ã¢â¬ËmentallyillÃ¢â¬â¢ people out of society believing this to be for their own good andthat of their communities. Beginning in the 1950s and accelerating atthe end of the 1980s, government policy switched to providing moreservices in the community and in most cases limiting hospital treatmentto when it is needed most acutelyÃ¢â¬â¢ [All-Party Parliamentary Group onPrison Health, House of Commons, November 2006, p2]. In light of the fact that historically the mentally ill have beendealt with in the same way as convicted criminals, it is not toodifficult to understand why there has developed a publicly perceivedlink between mental illness and criminality. This misconception hasalso been given weight by a small number of brutal homicide cases inwhich the perpetrator was schizophrenic; whilst social workers andpsychiatrists of today realise that schizophrenia does not necessarilycause its owners to be criminally violent, public opinion is still notas understanding: Ã¢â¬ËOur understanding of mental ill health hasÃ¢â¬ ¦developed [since] that time, though public debate on the topic has notalways been in stepÃ¢â¬ ¦ the popular assumption that mental ill health andcriminality are inextricably linked needs to be broken and policyinformed by a deeper understanding of the complex links between mentalill health and offendingÃ¢â¬â¢ [All-Party Parliamentary Group on PrisonHealth, House of Commons, Novemb er 2006, p2]. Therefore, whilst theremay be certain links between mental ill-health and criminality, thereis no intuitive similarity between these two respective phenomena. 2] How prevalent is mental ill-health in young offenders who arecurrently serving custodial sentences in young offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ institutes inthe UK? N.B. At the outset of this section of the literature review it isimportant to remind ourselves that secondary reviews of primary datacan often be misleading or, worse, erroneous. For example, to quote asection from the website of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËCrime Reduction ToolkitÃ¢â¬ËA recent report by the Office for National Statistics, PsychiatricMorbidity Among Young Offenders, found that 9 in 10 young offendersaged between 16-20 years old showed evidence of mental illnessÃ¢â¬â¢. Thisstatement would, using the taxonomy of mental ill-health discussed insection  above, appear to suggest that 90% of young offenders in UKPrisons are suffering from severe psychiatric illnesses such aschizophrenia: such a contention is clearly erroneous as if this werethe case then 90% of young offenders in Prison should in fact not be inprison at all but rather in secure mental hospitals. What the statementshould have said is: Ã¢â¬ËA recent report by the Office for NationalStatistics, Psyc hiatric Morbidity Among Young Offenders, found that 9in 10 young offenders aged between 16-20 years old showed evidence ofmental ill-healthÃ¢â¬â¢. Hopefully this example has shown how careful onemust be when attempting to describe or analyse the data findings fromprimary research. All of the literature and research supports the contention thatmental ill-health among young offenders in UK Prisons is prevalent. Arecent Report suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"Young people in prison have an evengreater prevalence of poor mental health than adults, with 95% havingat least one mental health problem and 80% having more than one. [Laderet al., 2000, cited by Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, March 2006,p3]Ã¢â¬ . This same conclusion is reported by Singleton et al. (1998): Ã¢â¬Ë95per cent of young prisoners aged 15 to 21 suffer from a mentaldisorder. 80 per cent suffer from at least two. Nearly 10 per cent offemale sentenced young offenders reported already having been admittedto a mental hospital at some point.Ã¢â¬â¢ A more recent research study conducted by Professor RichardHarrington and Professor Sue Bailey on behalf of the Youth JusticeBoard, entitled Ã¢â¬ËMental Health Needs and Effectiveness of Provision forYoung Offenders in Custody and in the CommunityÃ¢â¬â¢, found thatapproximately 33% of the young offenders sampled had at least onemental health need, approximately 20% suffered from clinicaldepression, approximately 10% of these young offenders had a history ofself-harmÃ and approximately 10% suffered from post traumatic stressdisorder and severe anxiety . This study also found that approximately5% of the young offenders sampled had symptoms indicative of clinicalpsychosis and that 7% of the sample population seemed to suffer fromhyperactivity. [Harrington and Bailey, 2005]. In conclusion, it seems indisputable that mental ill-health isprevalent among young offenders in the UK, in particular among thoseyouths serving custodial sentences. 3] To what extent is this a recent phenomenon? And to what extent isthis a phenomenon which is particular to young offenders serving asentence in a secure institution rather than to those young offenderswho are serving non-custodial sentences or those young persons who havenot been involved in the Youth Justice system at all? Whilst there is evidence that even as far back as 200 years ago UKPrisons were occupied to some extent by persons who suffered frommental problems, disorders and illness [Thomas Holmes, 1900], it isdifficult to ascertain whether this was due to the same reasons whichcause the phenomenon today, or whether these offenders were simply putin prison because of their mental ill-health, a practice which, asdiscussed above, was common in the nineteenth century. Unfortunately,in regards to the historical po sition, this is not a problem which canever be easily resolved, and it is a question which is still relevantto a discussion of the phenomenon of today: Is the prevalence of mentalill-health among young prisoners due to their treatment within theyouth justice system or did these individuals suffer mental ill-healthprior to their involvement with the justice system? Hagell (2002) p37 suggests that mental ill-health is more prevalent inyoung offenders than in their law-abiding peers, but this still doesnot answer the question of whether the reason that these individualsbroke the law in the first place was because of their mental problems,disorders or illness: Ã¢â¬Å"there is little doubt that young people caughtup in the criminal justice system do have elevated rates of mentalhealth problems when compared to other adolescents. A conservativeestimate would suggest that the rates of mental illness in these youngpeople is three times as high as that for their peers.Ã¢â¬ Likewise, an article by Sir David Ramsbotham entitled Ã¢â¬ËThe Needs ofOffending Children in PrisonÃ¢â¬â¢, which was published in the Report fromthe Conference of the Michael Sieff Foundation entitled Ã¢â¬ËThe Needs ofOffending ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢, at p19, that whilst 95% of young offenders incustody are suffering from mental ill-health, only 10% of the generalpopulation are suffering from such problems, disorders or illnesses. This finding is supported in result, if not precise figures, by aresearch study which was conducted by the Mental Health Foundationentitled: The Mental Health of Young Offenders. Bright Futures: Workingwith Vulnerable Young People [Hagell, 2002]. This study stated:Ã¢â¬Å"Despite methodological hindrances, it is clear from this review of theliterature that there is a consensus that young people who offend arelikely to have much higher than usual levels of mental health problems.Estimates from research studies suggest that the rates of problems wereapproximately three ti mes as high as for their peers in the generalpopulation. In general, the mental health needs of young offenders arethe same as those of the general adolescent population but more acute.Ã¢â¬ [Hagell, 2002, p28]. Regarding whether the prison regime itself is responsible for thisprevalence, or merely the fact of incarceration, a study by Nicol et al(2000) found that there was very little difference between the levelsof mental needs in those young persons held in prison and those held inother forms of welfare establishment. This implies that the same mentalproblems, disorders and illnesses which lead a young person to beincarcerated in a welfare institution are also present in those youngoffenders who break the law and are subsequently sentences toimprisonment. A study commissioned by the Youth Justice Board [Harrington andBailey, 2005, p8] seemed to suggest that the mental needs of youngpersons were reduced as a result of being sent to Prison: Ã¢â¬Å"Youngoffenders in the community were found to have significantly more needsthan those in secure careÃ¢â¬ ¦Needs increased for young offendersdischarged from secure facilities back into the community, suggestingthat needs are only temporarily reduced while in custody. In conclusion, there is no doubt that the prevalence of mentalill-health amongst young incarcerated offenders is not a newphenomenon, although it is impossible to state with any certaintywhether this phenomenon is worse now than it ever has been in historypreviously. Regarding whether this phenomenon is particular to youthoffenders over their law-abiding peers, it would seem that it iscertainly more pronounced with this former group, but also with thoseoffenders serving community sentences and those young persons who arebeing held in welfare establishments. 4] Historically, how has the UK Youth Justice System responded to theproblem of mental illness in young offenders who are currently servingcustodial sentences in young offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ institutes? As noted earlier, Ã¢â¬ËIn the UK, mental health care was for decadesprovided only in large Ã¢â¬ËasylumsÃ¢â¬â¢ keeping Ã¢â¬Ëmentally illÃ¢â¬â¢ people out ofsociety believing this to be for their own good and that of theircommunities. Beginning in the 1950s and accelerating at the end of the1980s, government policy switched to providing more services in thecommunity and in most cases limiting hospital treatment to when it isneeded most acutelyÃ¢â¬â¢ [All-Party Parliamentary Group on Prison Health,House of Commons, November 2006, p2]. During the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s the link between mental ill-health andcriminality had arguably never been stronger; all prisoners wereregarded as patients who could be effectively Ã¢â¬ËtreatedÃ¢â¬â¢ to prevent themfrom re-offending in the future and whilst little specific attentionwas paid to the individual mental needs of offenders, the types oftreatment reforms which were offered by the Criminal Justice System atthis time were very similar to the kinds of group treatment therapiesbeing offered to those mentally disordered and mentally ill patients inthe mental asylums and hospitals of the day. During the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s thisparadigm of offender treatment was abandoned primarily as a result ofresearch studies conducted into the success of some of these treatmentreforms: conclusions from several research studies into theeffectiveness of these criminal treatments on reducing criminalbehaviour strongly suggested that Ã¢â¬Ënothing worksÃ¢â¬â¢ (Thomas-Peter, 2006,p29). T hese embarrassing findings caused the pendulum to swing awayfrom rehabilitation towards a firmer commitment to incapacitation andpunishment through positive custody. During the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, the wave of Ã¢â¬Ënew public managementÃ¢â¬â¢ was born(Thomas-Peter, 2006, p30). This movement focussed heavily upon theprocedural roles of the Prison and Probation Services in reducingre-offending. The Prison service started to contract out some of theirprimary responsibilities in a quest to encourage more efficient servicefrom both their private sub-contractors and also their remaining statePrisons who would have to meet their performance targets to avoid beingprivatised in the same way as so many other Institutions had been.Likewise, the Probation service was reorganised and reintegrated toencourage greater efficiency of performance: Ã¢â¬Ë[The Probation Service,rather than] a loosely co-ordinated collection of individual socialworkers [became a unified and managed service] with a clearer sense ofdirection and purpose, which was more able to engage on equal termswith other services and to contribute and give effect to nationalpoliciesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Faulkne r, 2007, p7). During the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s researchers revisited the studies conducted in the1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and found that rather than demonstrating that Ã¢â¬Ënothing worksÃ¢â¬â¢,rather they supported the contention that certain types of treatmentinitiatives were working with certain types of individuals: Whilst only10% of a group may have responded well to that treatment, if thesimilarities between those responding offenders could be identifiedthen for this new group, the reform could be said to be verysuccessful. This has lead researchers such as Harper and Chitty (2005)to argue that the new question should not be Ã¢â¬Ëwhat works?Ã¢â¬â¢ but Ã¢â¬Ëwhatworks for whom, and whyÃ¢â¬â¢? This paradigm shall be discussed in greaterdetail in section  of this literature review. It is important to note that, except for the changes made to theProbation Services in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, the above discussion summarizes thedevelopments in the paradigm of Criminal Justice generally and does notspecifically answer the question of how the Criminal Justice system hashistorically dealt with the problem of mental ill-health in youngimprisoned offenders. The fact is that even as late as 2002, there was no real unifiedsystem implemented to deal specifically with this particular problem.Research on this topic was sparse and focused rather than on nationalstrategies, on local remedies such as the pioneering work done by theAdolescent Forensic Services in the Midlands. Generally, where YoungOffenders Institutions were involving forensic psychiatrists or mentalhealth social workers this was not being done with the aim of treatmentor rehabilitation but rather for the purposes of assessment. Also,rather than assessing each young offender, these processes tended to beused for those offenders who were clearly suffering from mentalill-health and those offenders who specifically asked for suchassistance. A report published by the Mental Health Foundation in 2002,entitled Ã¢â¬ËThe Mental Health of Young Offenders. Bright Futures: Workingwith Vulnerable Young PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ [Hagell, 2002, p23] summarized theposition at that time in the followin g way: Ã¢â¬Å"As far as the MentalHealth Foundation is aware, there is no recent research data availableon the provision of psychological and psychiatric services to youngoffenders across the criminal justice system. However, at the time ofwriting it is clear that, from existing fragmented information, thereis no routine, standardised screening employed across the criminaljustice system and that responses to problems are inadequate andfragmented.Ã¢â¬ Whilst it is true that certain practical initiatives were introducedfrom the mid-nineties, such as Youth Offending Teams, Detention andTraining Orders, Parenting Orders and Child Safety Orders, thediscussion of the effects of these reforms shall be reserved forsections  and  of this literature review, in which we shallanalyse the current policy and practical approach employed by the YouthJustice System in dealing with the problem of prevalent mentalill-health among young prisoners. 5] Is there convincing evidence which suggests that there is linkbetween mental illness and the likelihood of being sentenced toimmediate custody? Is there convincing evidence which suggests thatthere is link between mental illness and the prevalence of mentalillness and the high rates of recidivism in young offenders servingcustodial sentences? One would be right to question the relevance of this enquiry to themain purposes of this research paper; after all the objective of thispaper is to examine the current strategy in dealing with the problem ofmental ill-health in young offenders institutes and to proposerecommendations for future clinical research and immediate reform.However, the researcher of this paper has chosen to dedicate a sectionof its literature review to the issues raised in the title of thissection because he feels that, if a convincing link between mentalill-health and criminality/criminal recidivism can be demonstrated thenit would provide additional support for the importance of reform inthis area. After all, the youth of today are the adults of the future,and if it can be shown that reducing the prevalence of mentalill-health in young offender institutions has a positive (reducing)effect on the rates of recidivism then the Criminal Justice System maybe compelled to dedicate extra time, money and resource s on furtherresearch in this area and also on the implementation of reformsdesigned to reduce the prevalence of this problem. The first point to note is that there is a body of research whichsuggests that young persons with mental disorders are more likely to bearrested, charged and convicted for their criminal behaviour than thoseyoung people in similar circumstances who do not have such severemental problems [Teplin, 1984]. This is supported by the research studyconducted by Singleton et al (1998) which found that the majority ofprisoners who had been diagnosed as having mental illness had, prior tohaving contact with the Justice System, already had contact with theNHS and other welfare services. These findings cannot be squared easily with the findings of otherresearch studies which suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"further offending [is] notpredicted by mental health needs or alcohol and drug abuse problems.[Harrington and Bailey, 2005, p8]Ã¢â¬ After all, if mental ill-health canpredict first instance-offending in young persons, then it must alsosurely be a predictor of recidivism in these persons also. Thisresearcher is therefore more inclined to rely upon other researchstudies which suggest that this is not the case: For example, the studyconducted by the Mental Health Foundation [Hagell, 2002, p24] foundthat: The outcomes for young offenders in need of mental healthservices include: further offending and worsening mental healthproblems if the needs are not met. The two are interlinked. While theoffending may have been a risk factor for mental health problems in thefirst place, it has long been understood that mental health problems inturn go on to be a risk factor for continued off ending (Kandel, 1978;Rutter et al 1998). Early detection may reduce the likelihood thatyoung offenders will persist into adulthood.Ã¢â¬ 6] What is the approach which is currently employed by the UK Youth Justice System to tackle this problem? As discussed earlier
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Road Not TakenÃ¢â¬ , author Robert Frost uses the simple image of a road to represent a personÃ¢â¬â¢s journey through life. A well-established poet, Frost does a proficient job of transforming a seemingly common road to one of great importance, which along the way helps one identify who they really are. This poem is one of self-discovery. Frost incorporates strong elements of poetry such as theme, symbolism, rhyme scheme, diction, imagery, and tone to help create one of his most well known pieces about the human experience. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The main theme of the poem that Frost attempts to convey is how important the decisions that one makes can be, and how they affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s future. In lines 2-3, he expresses the emotions of doubt and confusion by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"And sorry I could not travel/ And be one traveler, long I stoodÃ¢â¬ , which explains how the speaker contemplated their decision of which road to take. In the closing, line 20 of the poem further reestablishes the theme when it states, Ã¢â¬Å"that has made all the differenceÃ¢â¬ , meaning that making the decision of which road to take for themselves is the important key for a successful future. Frost helps to express this theme by using symbolism to portray a road as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s journey of life. Using symbolism, Frost suggests that the speaker of this poem is taking the harder of the two roads presented before them, because the road the speaker chooses, Ã¢â¬Å"leaves no step had trodden blackÃ¢â¬ (12...
Friday, October 25, 2019
Education, Social Class and Self-Interest in Rebecca Rushs Novel Kelroy :: Rebecca Rush Kelroy Essays
Education, Social Class and Self-Interest in Rebecca Rush's Novel Kelroy Kelroy, by Rebecca Rush, was first published in 1812. Early American writers had a rough time writing "gothic" style writings because of the lack of history, which was not a problem faced by European writers. Kelroy is an extremely cynical view of American life and it was not well accepted by Americans, despite the fact that it is seen as "one of the best written [novels] in America before 1820"(231). Three themes from Kelroy, which demonstrate the focus of many early Americans, are Education, Social Class, and Self-Interest. Education was beginning to become extremely important in the early 1800's, especially for women. Reading habits of the characters was often emphasized in literary works of this time period because it was an important issue that was being faced. For example, in Kelroy, Mrs. Hammond "applied herself sedulously to the education of her daughters, and engaged a person to reside with them in quality of governess, who was, in her estimation, fully adequate to the task, since to a variety of accomplishments, she enjoyed an infinity of that species of self-important pride, which teaches its owner instinctively to shun the approaches of the vulgar. She also had masters from the city, to attend them at stated times: thus uniting in her plan, to real benefit, an air of lofty superiority"(4-5). However, Mrs. Hammond's motive behind educating her daughters was not necessarily for their benefit, but her own. The appearance of being able to afford educating her daughters, which would lead oth ers to believe that she was wealthy (and many did believe) was a key motivator for Mrs. Hammond. The ability to read was possessed by many women in the 1800's, but writing was not as common, which meant that Mrs. Hammond's daughters, as well as Mrs. Hammond, would have been considered better educated that most women because they could read and write. In contrast with the Hammond girls, we have Maria, from Royall Tyler's The Contrast, who reads the dreaded romantic novels, which is not considered to be a favored pastime. Speaking of Maria, Letitia says, "Why she read Sir Charles Grandison, Clarissa Harlowe, Shenstone, and the Sentimental Journey, and between whiles, as I said, Billy's letters. But as her taste improved, her love declined"(1151).
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Description Son of a yeoman farmer, Samuel Slater was born in Belper, Derbyshire, England on June 9, 1768. He become involved in the textile industry at the age of 14 when he was apprenticed to Jedediah Strutt, a partner of Richard Arkwright and the owner of one of the first cotton mills in Belper. Slater worked for Strutt for eight years and rose to become superintendent of Strutt's mill. It was in this capacity that he gained a comprehensive understanding of Arkwright's machines. Believing that textile industry in England had reached its peak; Slater immigrated secretly to America in 1789 in hopes of making his fortune in America's infant textile industry. While others with textile manufacturing experience had emigrated before him, Slater was the first who knew how to build as well as operate textile machines. Slater, with funding from Providence investors and assistance from skilled local artisans, built the first successful water powered textile mill in Pawtucket in 1793. By the time other firms entered the industry, Slater's organizational methods had become the model for his successors in the Blackstone River Valley. Later known as the Rhode Island System, it began when Slater enlisted entire families, including children, to work in his mills. These families often lived in company owned housing located near the mills, shopped at the company stores and attended company schools and churches. While not big enough to support the large mills which became common in Massachusetts, the Blackstone River's steep drop and numerous falls provided ideal conditions for the development of small, rural textile mills around which mill villages developed. One of the earliest of these mill villages was Slatersville. Located on the Branch River in present day North Smithfield, Rhode Island, Slatersville was built by Samuel Slater and his brother John in 1803. By 1807, the village included the Slatersville Mill, the largest and most modern industrial building of its day, and two tenement houses for workers, the owner's house and the company store. In the early twentieth century, industrialist and preservationist Henry P. Kendall took a personal interest in the village and initiated many of the improvement projects, which give the village its traditional New England Charm. Impact The system of child labor in Rhode Island mills began with Rhode Island's first textile mill - the Slater Mill. Samuel Slater's first employees were all children from seven to twelve years of age.
The first reason we support mercy killing is it does relieve the pain that the patient suffer. For patients that terminally ill, there no need to make any actions to prolong their life because this may make them struggle and suffer in the last moment of their life. All those chemotherapy and medicines may prolong the patient life but also torture them physically and mentally as these treatments have side effects on human body. It is quite depressed when seeing the patients having all these treatments. It is a way for the patient to release themselves from all these pain. Another reason we support it is it will reduce the burden of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family especially from the economically aspects. From the day the patient started to hospitalise, the medical fees for the patient started to count into the bill. For patient that is not capable to carry on these medical fees, they will feel stress to find money to pay for this large amount of bill. They may start to think of selling their own properties and even loan money from loan sharks, just to pay the bill. The medical fee in a hospital is not cheap, if the patient stays one more day in the hospital, the family need to more money to the hospital. Even the patient will also feel stress when know his or her family members are funding for the medical bills. The third reason is euthanasia can save life. For example, a coma patient who has laid on bed for about 10 years. For this 10 years, he is occupying a hospital bed, medical equipment and medicine that sustain his life. As we know, almost every day, the spaces in hospital are inadequate for incoming patients. Instead of letting the coma patient to suffer and wasting a bed space, mercy killing an incurable patient can definitely save lots of life. Besides, if the organs of the patient are still functioning well, his organs can donate to other patients who are in need and have higher probability to survive. In short, euthanasia not only bring the grief suffered by a patient to an end, but this method too, can save many others lives. This reason should compensate the ethics problem that the public are discussing for decades.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Health inequalities are defined as the differences in wellness attention or in the distribution of wellness determiners between different population groups ( Woodward & A ; Kawachi 2000 ) . Health inequalities can be breakdown in to four key subdivisions. The first 1 is inequalities are unjust. Inequalities in wellness are unwanted to the extent that they are unjust besides unfair. Inequalities become Ã¢â¬Å" unjust Ã¢â¬ when deprived wellness is itself the effect of an unfair distribution of the societal determiners of wellness. For case the mortality rates between people from different societal categories or unequal chances in instruction and employment. The 2nd is inequalities affect every society. Condition that lead to tag wellness disparities are damaging to all members of society. Some types of wellness inequalities have clear effects on the remainder of society, such as the effects of intoxicant and drug abuse, the spread of infective diseases, or the happening of force an d offense. The 3rd is inequalities are evitable. Disparities in wellness are evitable to the extent that they branch from identifiable policy option exercised by authoritiess for illustration ordinance of concern and labor, revenue enhancement policy, public assistance benefits and wellness attention support. The last 1 is intercessions to cut down wellness inequalities are cost effectual. A public wellness programme that reduces wellness inequalities can besides be cost effectual. The instance can be made to give precedence to certain programmes for case, heightening entree to cervical malignant neoplastic disease screen in low income adult females on efficiency evidences. In contrast, few programmes designed to cut down wellness inequalities have been officially evaluated utilizing cost effectivity analysis.History of Health inequalitiesHealth inequalities have been known since the societal and public wellness reform of the 19th century, when Chadwick and Rowntree began to document them. It was grounds on societal inequalities an d of unequal entree to wellness attention in Britain that provided the force per unit area to put up the public assistance province and the National Health Service in the post-war period. An rating in the late-1970s illustrate that Britain was falling behind other states in wellness betterment, despite 30 old ages of the public assistance province. This led to the Black Report in 1980 on inequalities in wellness. The Black Report demonstrated that although overall wellness had improved since the debut of the public assistance province, there still remained widespread wellness inequalities. It besides highlighted the chief cause of these inequalities was economic inequality. The study found that decease rate for work forces in societal category V was twice that for work forces in societal category I therefore demoing the spread between the two was increasing, non cut downing as was expected ( Carter, 2002 ) . The Acheson Report was published 18 old ages after the Black Report, but both show comparing. The Acheson study present a contrast to The Black Report in that it illustrates the troubles of undertaking wellness inequalities despite seemingly improved status.Conveyance and country of abodesConveyance is critical in enabling entree to people, goods and services, therefore promotes wellness straight through the accomplishment and care of societal webs. Forms of conveyance, such as walking and cycling promote wellness straight by increased physical activity and decrease of fleshiness. A deficiency of conveyance may take to damaged wellness by denying entree to people, goods and services and by deviating resources from other necessities. In add-on, conveyance may damage wellness straight, most notably by inadvertent hurt and air pollution. Sing conveyance in a inequalities facets, deficiency of entree to transport is experienced disproportionately by handicapped people, older people and people socioeconomic position, peculiarly single life in distant or rural countries ( Elgar, 2006 ) . For case, single life in council house where hapless entree to transport may restrict work and preparation chance. An addition in monetary values and a limited scope of goods available to persons whose deficiency of entree to transport denies them chances to shop for necessities. Environmental barriers in entree to transport experienced by people with physical disablements. Deprived urban countries tend to be characterised by high traffic volume, taking to increased degrees of noise and air pollution and important rates of route traffic accidents without the benefits of entree to private conveyance. The cost of rail and local coach menus has addition well Campbell ( 2005 ) studies that about one 3rd in existent footings since 1990. This in bend has had the most impact on those single with lower income. Bettering public conveyance may take to improved entree to people and installations fundamental to wellness, such as store, parks wellness attention friends and households. This consecutively should take to betterment in quality of life and wellness. The authorities policies Ã¢â¬Å" Better conveyance Ã¢â¬ place a increasing in usage of public conveyance by the general population would in bend lessenings air and noise pollution. The Independent enquiry into Inequalities in Health Report recommends the farther development of a high quality public conveyance system which is integrated with other signifiers of conveyance which is a sensible monetary value to single. A lessening in the usage of vehicles would take to a decrease of accidents.UnemploymentEmployment and unemployment is a important factor taking to ill wellness. Carter ( 2002 ) surveies emphasise that non merely is employment a primary beginning of position in Western states, but it is besides important in supplying intent , societal support, construction to life and a agency of take parting in society. Therefore if the person is unemployed this can be a possible major hazard to wellness for the population of working age and their households. In 1997 the international Labour Office stated two million people were unemployed in the UK, besides around a 3rd of unemployed adult females and half of all unemployed work forces had been unemployed for one twelvemonth or more. The bulk of unemployment persons tend to hold a important inauspicious consequence psychological and physiological wellbeing. This can include symptoms of anxiousness and depression to self-harm and self-destruction ( Wildmen, 2003 ) . In relation to physical wellness, unemployment brings a important hazard of morbidity and premature mortality. Johnson, ( 2008 ) place that all major mortality causes was systematically higher than mean among unemployed work forces. He besides found that unemployed adult females had higher mortality from coronary bosom disease, hurts and self-destruction. There are many to better an single wellness during the clip they are unemployment. Bettering fiscal support during unemployment can increase living conditions and resources needed for wellness, including entree to nutrient, shelter and warming. Being unemployed may besides better their ability to by apart of their communities cut downing societal exclusion ( Richter, 2005 ) . Government policies aimed at the creative activity of employment chances, apprenticeship for immature unemployed people, improved degrees of instruction and preparation for immature unemployed people. De Vogli, ( 2009 ) place cardinal factor is the remotion of barriers to work for parents with dependent kids. This should better the opportunities of wellness increasing employment opportunities in add-on to other good effects on wellness and its determiners such as income and lodgingEducationEducation has the chance to play numerical functions in act uponing inequalities in wellness. It has an of import function in act uponing inequalities in socioeconomic place. Educational makings determines an person Ã¢â¬Ës labor market place, therefore act uponing at that place income, lodging and other material assets. As a effect, instruction is a traditional path out of poorness for single life in hapless community. Education besides has a function in fixing kids for life. For illustration, guaranting person has the practical, societal and emotional cognition and accomplishments to make a full and healthy life. It has a societal function in fixing kids to lend to the full in society. This can affect educating them about utilizing services, doing kids aware of their democratic rights and duties ( Bromberg, 2003 ) . Sing instruction in an inequalities facets, kids from hapless backgrounds is measured by being in reception of free school dinners. They are found to hold lower educational accomplishment that their equals. Mana & A ; Huston, ( 2008 ) place kids on free school dinners as an index of poorness. They conducted research screening that a high per centum of students eligible for free school dinners have a low per centum of students with a least five base on ballss at GCSE level A star to C. Higher proportions of students in School exclusion and hooky are associated with increased engagement in offense and other harmful activities. In the long term, school exclusion and hooky are associated with unemployment, homelessness, adolescent gestation and captivity ( Mana & A ; Huston, 2008 ) The Independent enquiry into Inequalities in Health Report recommends the proviso of extra resources for schools functioning kids from disadvantage groups to heighten their educational accomplishment. The Revenue Support Grant expression and other support mechanisms should be reviewed more to reflect demands and socioeconomic disadvantage. This is likely, but non convinced to be accompanied by a decrease in inequalities in accident rates.Promotional Intervention and PoliciesThe Government has besides played its portion through a scope of national programmes. These include Certain Start designed to back up the development of pre-school kids from disadvantage households. Change4Life prevents households from going corpulence and the National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal which developed to back up an incorporate attack to regeneration in the most disadvantaged communities. The UK Fuel Poverty Strategy which supports lodging betterments targeted at vulnerable family.Change4LifeIs a promotional run that aims to forestall people from going overweight by promoting them to eat better and by more activate. It is the marketing constituent of the Government Ã¢â¬Ës response to the addition in fleshiness in the UK. The run aims to animate a social motion in which person Ã¢â¬Ës who has an involvement in forestalling fleshin ess, such as concern, health care professionals, school, charities, households or persons can play their portion. The Change4life advertisement run launched in January 2009 and in the early phases targeted immature households with kids aged 5-11 old ages. Six months in Change4life had a great response from immature households. 85 % of female parents reported that the run makes them see about their kids Ã¢â¬Ës wellness, and over 360,000 households have already signed up in order to follow a healthier life style ( Department of wellness, 2009 ) .Certain StartCertain start is a promotional run that brings family-support services for households with kids under 5 old ages old. Their purpose is to undertake child poorness and societal exclusion working with parents, attentions and kids to advance the rational, physical and societal development of babes and immature kids so that they can boom at place and when they are go toing school. Certain Start coaction with service suppliers from the statutory sector like wellness, societal services and early instruction, community administrations and parents t hemselves. There provide integrated services for immature kids and their households based on what local kids need and parents want.National Strategy for vicinity reclamation policiesThe National Strategy for vicinity reclamation was created in 2001 and has two overall purposes. To cut down the spread between the most disadvantaged vicinities and the remainder of England and in the worst vicinities to accomplish less offense, better wellness and better educational making. A cardinal construct is that vicinities should non be below a certain degree. This degree cover the full scope of Government activity and many are incorporated into the relevant Public Service Agreements for illustration wellness, instruction and income.UK Fuel Poverty StrategyThe UK Fuel Poverty Strategy was established in 2001. It chiefly focuses is to better energy efficiency and cut down the costs of fuel for fuel in hapless families, since the income steps which form portion of a long term solution are being ad dressed in wider poorness and societal exclusion policies. To accomplish these marks, a scope of programmes and steps have been put in topographic point. This include go oning action to prolong the downward force per unit area on fuel measures, guaranting just intervention for perverse households, and back uping the development of energy industry initiatives to battle fuel poorness. To go on action to cut down poorness and societal exclusion recognizing that these are assorted jobs. In decision it is clear that wellness inequalities are a important concern in Britain. The instance survey shows how wellness inequalities are relentless and hard to alter. They are besides widening and are likely to make so unless we do things otherwise. This means turn toing non merely the short-run effects of evitable sick wellness, but besides the longer-term causes. The Government and assorted national programmes are determined to assist cut down wellness inequalities in Britain by making a fairer and more merely society that will let all single and communities to profit more equitably from public services investing.
The ExplorerÃ¢â¬â¢s Daughter Background Kari Herbert, whose father was a polar explorer, lived as a child with her family in northwest Greenland in the Arctic. She was so fascinated by the place she returned there later as an adult to write about it. The book from which this extract is taken is partly a memoir (a form of autobiography) and partly a travel book, giving the reader information about this strange and beautiful place, its people and its animals. She found that the way of life of the Inughuit people was changing under the impact of the modern world, but that they still retained aspects of their traditional way of life, for instance hunting for food and driving teams of dogs. A major part of the passage is an account of a hunt for narwhal whales. Hunting is a very emotive issue and many conservationists argue that whales should be protected. Kari HerbertÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings are divided on this topic. She sympathises with both the narwhal and the hunters, who face incredible danger. They hunt in kayaks Ã¢â¬â flimsy canoes Ã¢â¬â in water so cold that they would die quickly if their kayak overturned. What can I say about language? This passage has many purposes. The writer uses language in differing ways to fulfil these. She uses description to convey the beauty of the setting, gives us information about the Inughuit and the narwhal, dramatises the hunt, and gives us an insight into her own thoughts and feelings. Complete the following table to help you sort out these various strands. Kari Herbert sympathises with both hunter and hunted, and this tension is shown in this passage. Complete the following table to highlight this aspect of the passage Pharagraph by Pharagerph Paragraph 1 Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ spectral play of colour. Ã¢â¬ This sentence shows a sense of immediate aroma. It is an imagery so give a strong sense of place and setting. Ã¢â¬Å".. butter-gold.. Ã¢â¬ This text shows a sense of wealth Ã¢â¬Å".. shifting light. Ã¢â¬ is Poetical Paragraph 2 Ã¢â¬Å"dead of winterÃ¢â¬ This is a metaphor Ã¢â¬â weaker setting the tone is ominous and there is the sense of place and danger Paragraph 3 Ã¢â¬Å"dead of winterÃ¢â¬ is a metaphor to show a weaker setting. The whole of paragraph 3 has an ominous tone. It shows a sense of place and danger. Paragraph 4 The whole of paragraph 4 has a shift in tone from paragraph 3; it is more factual, informative and for example shows this by using technical words. It is also the biggest paragraph. In the context you find out that the community really relies on the hunting and how dangerous it is. Paragraph 5 Ã¢â¬Å".. clustered.. Ã¢â¬ The word clustered is a powerful connotation, it means that the women are scared so they huddle together and try to comfort each other. Ã¢â¬Å"It was like watching a cast, waterborne game with the hunters spread like a net around the soundÃ¢â¬ . This sentence is imagery. It has added adverbs to show how scared the women were and how much their husbands are important in their life. Paragraph 6 Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ gently picked up his harpoonÃ¢â¬ thought and care, focus on the actual hunt and the text also switches back to the hunters. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ two heads and one bladderÃ¢â¬ not high-tech technology, limited, she respects them because they are using a harpoon, she is sympathetic to the narwhal and the hunters, dramatic. Ã¢â¬Å".. urgeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ to show how strongly she wanted the narwhal to survive Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ o dive, to leave, to surviveÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â triad Paragraph 7 Ã¢â¬Å"The dilemma stayedÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ This shows that she's not that sure who to be sympathetic for, the narwhal or the hunters but her sympathy gets switched back to the hunters un this paragraph. Ã¢â¬Å"How can you possibly eat seal? Ã¢â¬ is a view point of society this shows that the modern person thinks that this is a crime. -she build s up her argument, these are the points of her argument Ã¢â¬Å"use every part of the animalÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â so theres no waste/leftover Ã¢â¬Å"imported goods can only ever account forÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"do not kill for sportÃ¢â¬
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Healthcare Business Proposal Essay Example Healthcare Business Proposal Paper Healthcare Business Proposal Paper Today the whole Healthcare system (NHS) is thread bare in front of us, more than 46 million Americans have no healthcare coverage and over 40 million have minimal coverage (Dennis Kucinich, 2005). 41% of moderate to middle class Americans went without health care cover for some part of the year in 2005 and a staggering 53% of those earning less than $20000 in 2005 went without insurance for the whole year. According to National Academy of Science Institute of Medicine almost 18000 Americans die each year due to lack of health care. Where it needs Improvement (Opportunity Analysis) According to Paul Krugman (2006), the present system of spends enough amount to cover for universal healthcare but delivers almost half the results. A large chunk of money spend today goes into bureaucracy and operational inefficiency rather than providing healthcare to the people in need. He further explained that in the present system the doctor referenced has two full time medical staff and another for billing and two office assistants spending half their time in collecting insurance information on 301 different private plans. This operational complication on an average result in 20% increase in cost and delays in providing help to the needed. No wonder with such inefficiencies American healthcare expense is twice per person compare to Canada which provides universal health care for all its citizens. To put things in perspective, today the country spends 15 % of its GDP on health care compare to 9 to 10 percent spent by most other advanced countries. Secondly as American companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ global competitiveness has decreased due to outsourcing, more and more companies today are taking the path of not covering its employees with health insurance. Today the American companies which treat its employees properly are at disadvantage and government has not initiated any steps to encourage companies to provide health cover to its employees. Business Proposal: Starting an Electronic Healthcare Record Company As this year Nobel Peace Prize winner Md. Yunus showed that there is possibility of making a socially responsible and profitable business by working with the people who are at the bottom of the prosperity pyramid. The company is aim to maintain the electronic record of its customers across the country. Each customer will have a personal account and the company will handle not only the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s healthcare report, diagnostic tests report and other medication report but also will be available to all the hospitals in the country. This will reduce the doubling of expensive diagnostic tests and will provide doctors starting information. It will be extra beneficial in case of emergencies where the doctors have to take quick action and need the previous record of the patient. Secondly it will also bring down the operational cost which according to economist Paul Krugman is one of the main contributor to cost. Apart from maintaining health records in collaboration with the hospitals and customers the company will help the customer in getting information regarding the insurance policies and affiliated diagnostic centers, online medicine supply and other subsidiary health care services.
The Irony in Tell the Truth But Tell it Slant by Emily Dickenson. The irony cannot be missed in Emily Dickenson's poem "Tell the Truth But Tell it Slant". This poem is read like a church hymn, advising the reader to not exactly tell the blunt truth if asked. Thus, in the cadence of very familiar moving religious tunes, Dickinson implores one to tell the truth, but to give it an angle that makes it more palatable to the listener. Dickinson either wished to dramatically touch the spiritual side of the individual as he read the poem, or she was totally irreverent concerning religion. Either interpretation serves to get the message across. Dickinson believes that most individuals do not possess the ability to handle truth with grace. Truth hurts. An example in its simplest form could be described as follows. An individual wishing to tell a significant other "I am sick of you! I do NOT want to date you anymore!" will find the message accepted more readily, and handled with more dignity if, in the telling, the truth is couched in a little white lie.Angie Dickinson"I don't deserve a wonderful person like you; I could not ever be good enough for you, and since you ought to have someone much better than me; I am going to step out of your life and allow you to find someone more worthy of your wonderful qualities." The truth, put into a sugar coated "line," is less emotionally damaging and the receiver of the bad news will possibly remain more composed and self confident than hearing the truth. Therefore, the truth, bent, is less harsh to the listener. Truth is personified, giving it a life of its own in Dickinson's poem. The irony of a hymn-like poem suggesting the "darker edge of truth" gives an eerie quality to the very honesty...
Monday, October 21, 2019
How to Avoid Scams and Choose Safe Online GED Classes The old adage that you get what you pay for doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily apply to online GED certificates and online high school equivalency diplomas. There are scads of websites out there just waiting to take hundreds or even thousands of your dollars for a piece of paper with a foil star on it that no college or university is going to recognize. You will have paid your hard-earned dollars for something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s good only for hanging on your wall or throwing in a drawer. GED Online GED is a test you can take to earn a high school equivalency diploma if you didnt take four years of high school classes. There are plenty of GED-related websites out there, but how do you know which online GED websites are trustworthy? Its actually pretty simple. Just follow these guidelines: Check out your library and state education department website to find recommended online GED prep sites. There areÃ real GED sites with free coursesÃ andÃ practice testsÃ that are absolutely worth your while.Ã Be aware that while you may legitimately choose to pay a little extra for personal online support but you should never have to pay a prep site more than $25 a month at the absolute most.Be aware that the cost of taking the actual GED test is never more than about $150.Know that no legitimate site will offer a chance to take the actualÃ GED test online. Yes, there are computer-based sections of the test, but the test is ONLY offered at in-person testing sites. High School Diplomas Online There are a great many legitimate high school courses and accredited online high schools. Some of them are available to state residents free of charge, and you can learn about your local options through your states education departments website. You can also pay some accredited online schools and earn your high school diploma.There are some interested virtual schools out there that use gamified teaching tools, and some are both fun and legitimate. Its worth taking a look at whats available, but be absolutely sure your school of choice is accredited. It is important to know that websites like Kahn Academy offer terrific academic resources but do not necessarily offer actual diplomas. This means that while you might use their sites to help you learn, you will probably need to go elsewhere to earn your actually high school degree. GetEducated.com There is a website designed to help you determine which online learning sites are legitimate. GetEducated.com was founded in 1989 by Vicky Phillips, a psychologist, and educator. Her site includes a Diploma Mill Police page that allows you to check on any online institution youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking about attending. Phillips also has a school finder and a page on financial help. Phillips says, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get ripped off. Get educated!Ã¢â¬ The Most Important Guideline to Remember Its important to realize that while you can study online for your GED/HSE, and take practice tests online, you cannot take the test online. Dont be scammed here. In 2014, the test was updated to computer-based, but this should not be confused with online. You still need to go to a certified testing center and take your test there, on a computer.
Assessing the Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on the Economy Essays Assessing the Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on the Economy Essay Assessing the Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on the Economy Essay Department of industrial relations and public administration Lagos state university, Ojo, Nigeria.. Abstract The regime of banking sector reforms leading to recapitalization and consolidation in Nigeria and the consequent merger and or acquisition of existing banks into twenty five (25) by 2005, and later eighteen (18) by 2012 brought along their trails attendant labor problems in terms of educational diversity, job security and productivity, decent employment questions.The study review post consolidation performance of the banking sector to assess the extent to which the sector meets consolidation objective using post development approach. It was found that while the alliance and marriage of seemingly compatible partners are settling down, the society is at the receiving end of the severance of labor and the enlargement of the pool of reserved army of the unemployed. The fall-out therefore is double-edge for the economy and the society. Keywords: Labor reforms, recapitalization, con solidation and post development 1. 0Introduction Private and public businesses are continually being challenged by performance. Performance success is very minimal measured on the indices of what Alos (2006) catalogued as: what the customer needs and values, response to environmental changes and impact on the quality of the people. The issue of performance effectiveness or reengineering organisation has preoccupied the minds of organization practitioners, researchers and watchers since 1990s. Therefore, all over the world, many economies had carried out various reforms to ensure effectiveness of the 166 European Scientific JournalMay edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 real sectors. The performance revolution started in the private sector. Its effects spread to the public sector influenced by ideas from public management school. Nigeria as a nation is not left out in this reform revolution to ensure quality of life for its citizenry. Legal and i nstitutional frameworks were put in place to re-engineer the economy and the performance values of the real sectors. The blue print of the current reforms agenda is set out in the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) document.Some of the reforms include (1)power sector reform; (2) ports reforms meant to ensure timely clearing of goods within forty eight hours (3) deregulation of oil and gas sub-sector to forestall perennial fuel scarcity; (4) deregulation in the telecommunication industry to reduce government participation, create employment and commerce (5) the banking sub-sector /recapitalization/consolidation to make it play its rightful role as the dominant sector of the economy in driving growth and development in other sector. The current banking sector reforms captioned as recapitalization policy was issued out on Tuesday July 6, 2004.Capitalization is setting the capital base upon which a player can set up and be licensed to operate banking function s. It is setting a capital base which was given as twenty five billion naira (N25b) as at 2005. The former capital base was two billion Naira (N2b), which many banks could not even afford. In Nigeria, empirical studies had been carried out on the relationship between banking reforms and economic growth (Balogun, 2007, Fadare, 2010); consolidation and macro economic performance (see Somoye, 2008); consolidation and adoption of e-banking (Ayo, Adewoye and Oni 2010; Chimeke, Evwiekpaefe, and Chete, 2006).The implication of banking reforms on labor has scarcely been researched. The main objective of this study is to review the banking sector reforms 2004 Ã¢â¬â 2011 and the extent to which the objectives set are met and also, the implication of the reforms on labor as regards employment: security, decent employment, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction and the outcomes of these variables for the society. 2. 0 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework Consolidation simply means to build on or improve to the extent of stability Adeyemi (2007) considers it to represent the idea of investment and the coming together of firms or enterprises as a single entity.In the banking sector of Nigeria the essence of banking consolidation 167 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 is to reposition the nations banking industry for global competitiveness and also to ensure a strong and reliable banking sector that will guarantee the safety of the depositorsÃ¢â¬â¢ money. Consolidation as a means of reducing over capacity is doubtful (Somoye 2008).The effectiveness of banking sector consolidation as a remedy for financial stability and in correcting the defects in the financial sector for sustainable development had not been corroborated by similar exercise in Europe, America and Asia in the last decade (Somoye, 2008). Rather, crises and failures as depicted by credit crises and transatlantic mortgage financial turmoi l erupted which, in Nigeria, seriously affected invested money values specifically, stock values.Rather than restructuring leading to reduction in over capacity as indicated by consolidation apologists, an improvement strategy that would accommodate the resources available and expand them is advocated by internally induced consolidation apologists. The banking sub-sector in Nigeria witnessed sharp drop in credit rate to the real sector which affected return on shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ fund (Adeyemi, 2007). Credit went more to foreign exchange rather than the real sectors. The capacity of real sector to generate employment weakened.The access of small and medium enterprises (SMES) and the informal sectors to credit also dwindled (Somoye, 2008; NDIC, 2008; CBN, 2008). Structuring to the economists is adapting to the demands of increasingly global markets for greater efficiencies. Sociologist always view the social impact, specifically the social problems engendered by externalities which results in social disruption especially the negative effects on level of job security, commitment, psychological well being and turnover intentions.The effect of these on organization efficiency, contrary to reformist postulation may be negative. Matanmi (2005) saw a yawning gap between the immediate or short term effects of economic reforms and the necessary ideals of job security. He concluded that the ability of reforms to create employment in the last one decade had been very few and far between. Adeyemi (2007) also agreed that banking reforms in Nigeria resulted in job loss, variance level of compensation and remuneration package for different merging groups and board room squabbles among cliques of the merging banks. . 1 Theoretical Framework Post development approach is a reaction to the dilema of development. Instead of abundance, discourse and strategies of development produce its opposite: underdevelopment and 168 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 impoverishment, untold exploitation and repression. (Sidaway 2008). The post development apologist claim that change brought about by modernity or driven by the west would always meet with disillusionment on the part of the people of developing countries. 2. 2Banking Sector Reforms in Nigeria Banking operations began in 1892 owned mainly by expatriates (Somoye, 2008). They remained however unregulated until 1952 (Fadare, 2010). There were expansions with indigenous ownership by 1950s. However, many of the banks failed between 1947 and 1952. The first regulation of banks was put in place by Banking Ordinance of 1952. This was ineffective as there was no Central Bank until 1958 to carry out supervising or control measures. Bank ownership structure shifted by 1970s with indigenization decree. This allows more Nigerian investment in the banking industry.The Nigerian enterprises promotion Decree (NEPD) limits foreign ownership of Nigerian bu sinesses to 60% in 1972 and 40% in 1976. The 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s reform allowed for 100% individual ownership which was a shift from existing 10% for individual ownership and 30% for corporate ownership. This led to the proliferation of banks. Banking sub sector recapitalization policy was issued out on Tuesday, July 6, 2004. Capitalization is setting the capital base upon which a player can set up and be licensed to operate banking functions. Recapitalization is setting a new capital base.The essence is to consolidate the sector to enhance competitiveness and capacity to play important role of financing investment (Somoye, 2008). Consolidation which may result in increase in bank size through merger and acquisition has the potential of increasing bank returns through increase revenue and cost efficiency gains. It may also reduce industry risks through the eliminations of weak banks and create better diversification opportunities (Furlong, 1998). Recapitalization policies set twenty five billion Naira (N25b) as the new minimum capital base for banks operating in Nigeria.The former capital base was two billion naira (N2b) and many banks could not even meet this. The objective of recapitalization is captured in the governor of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Charles Soludos words thus the banking reform is to: (1) reposition the nations banking industry for global competitiveness; (2) ensure a strong and reliable banking sector that will guarantee the safety of the depositors money; (3) play active development role in the nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ economy; 169 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) ISSN 1857- 7431 (4) (5) make the banks less dependent on public sector fund, and be capable of financing the real sector (New Age Apri17, 2005). A time frame of eighteen months terminating in December 25, 2005 was set for prospective player to meet the capitalization line. To facilitate compliance the following carrots were offered by CB N. Banks that met the deadline shall: (1) (2) (3) (4) deal in foreign exchange; take public sector deposit; be recommended to fiscal authorities to collect public sector revenue, and; manage part of Nigeria external revenue. New Age April 12, 2005); Furtherance to this, nine billion Naira (N9b) loan write off was offered for weak banks to make them attractive for acquisition so as to protect the system, the depositors, and employees as a results of liquidation. 2. 2. 1The Need for reform: The Banking sector is one of the dominant sectors of the economy. It serves as the engine of growth for the real sector financing, Its stability and strength and consolidation will to a large extent influence other sectors.Any policies in the banking sector including its activities affect the micro-economic situation and acting as consultant with qualitative advice to the customers will drive the economy as it were. An inventory of Nigerian banks between 1994 and 2001 as revealed by Nigerian Deposi t Insurance Corporation shows that (NDIC, 2004; National Mirror 2005). (1) A total of thirty five (35) licensed banks went into distress and were eventually liquidated. Out of these, thirteen (13) were commercial banks eighteen (18) merchants and one (1) cooperative (2) The loss to depositors was two billion naira (#2. b) (3) Four thousand (4000) workers lost their job. Omeife (2005) calculated that an average of 3 banks per year was liquidated. That is spanning the period of eight years. The liquidation was as a result of in-effectiveness and inefficiency arising from (1) financial fraud, (2) insidersÃ¢â¬â¢ credit abuse resulting in huge non-performing credit, (3) low quality manpower, (4) inefficiency of management, (5) inaccurate reporting and non compliance with regulatory requirements(6) low aggregate credit as percentage of the GDP to the domestic 170 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 economy (20%) Idowu, 2006; Adeyemi, 2007; Cowry research, 2009). By 2005 the following were the status of the banks in terms of their standing Table 1 Category Sound Satisfactory Marginal Unsound 2001 10 6. 3 8 9 2002 13 54 13 10 2003 11 53 14 9 2004 10 51 16 10 Source: CBN reports and statement of accounts 2004 The impacts of these on the economy include the following: (1) There is sociological implication for the social nets of the sacked workers and the multiplier effects on other real sectors Social nets is the web of relationship established by an individual.In African setting, they include lots of extended family members that are dependent on such workers and which he/she in turn provides financial supports. (2) The confidence depositors have in banking system waned. (3) The economy became depressed as a result of loss of money. (4) Increased unemployment was witnessed. The loss of deposit definitely stalled other businesses and the spiral effect can only be imagined. At the announcement of the ba nking consolidation, not more than few banks could go it alone. Therefore, merger and or acquisition were necessitated..The existing eighty nine banks went through the process of merger and or acquisition, and twenty five banks eventually emerged by December 25, 2005 deadline. Table 1 shows the merged banks and their capital base. 171 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 Table 2 S/N GROUP MERGING BANKS Access bank, Marina IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Capital Bank Afribank, Afribank Merchant Diamond, Lion Bank Eco bank COMBINED ASSETS DEC. 2005, Ã¢â¬ËNÃ¢â¬â¢ BILLION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Access Afribank Diamond Eco Bank 28. 5 29 33. 25 Over 25 25 30 29 44. 62 28 34 35 51. 7 25 31. 26 Equatorial Trust Equitorial Trust, Devcom FCMB Fidelity First Bank First Inland Guaranty Trust IBTC Chartered Intercontinental FCMB, COOP Dev. NAMB Ltd Fidelity, FSB IntÃ¢â¬â¢l, Manny First Bank, FBN Merchant, MBC IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Fi rst Atlantic, Inland, IMB IntÃ¢â¬â¢l NUB IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Guaranty Trust Bank IBTC, Regent Banks Intercontinental, Equity, Global, Gateway Nigeria IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Bank Nigeria IntÃ¢â¬â¢l Bank (City Group) Oceanic Bank Platinum Skye Oceanic Bank and International Trust Platinum Bank ; Habib Bank (Bank PHB) Prudent Bank, EIB International, Cooperative 37 Bank, Bond Bank ; Reliance Bank 17 Spring Bank CITI, ENS Inter.Bank, Guardian Express Bank, Over 25 ACB Inter Bank, Omega Bank, Fountain Trust Bank ; TRANS, International Bank. 18 19 Stanbic Bank Standard Chartered Bank Stanbic Bank Standard Chartered Bank 25 26 20 United Bank of UBA, and Standard Trust Bank Africa 50 172 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 21 Sterling Bank Magnum Trust Bank, NAL Bank, Indo-Nigeria 25 Bank ; Trust Bank of Africa. 22 Union Bank Union Bank, Union Merchant, Board Bank and 58 Universal Trust Bank 23 24 25 Unity Bank WEMA Bank Zenith Bank W EMA ; National Bank Zenith 0 26. 2 38 Sources: Compiled from CBN Press Release (3/1/06), Financial Standards (16/1/06), and the Comet (3/1/06). 2. 3 Post Consolidation The Nigeria society woke up by August 14, 2009 to find out that the banks were not stable after all. The Central bank of Nigeria (CBN) intervened again purportedly to save the banking industry from imminent collapse. Five Banks were identified for rescue as a result of poor capital adequacy, high risk assets poor corporate governance tending towards CEOs corruption; erosion of share holders fund, high liquidity ratio and credit crises.Whereas the twenty five (25) banks that passed the recapitalization test were declared sound in 2005, by 2006, ten (10) were declared sound, five (5) satisfactory five (5) as marginal and five (5) unsound (CBN, 2006). Corporate governance crises, sharp practices, and corruption were also alleged. Asset Management Corporation of Nigeria (AMCON) was set up to manage the toxic debt or non p erforming loan (NPL) of ten (10) unsound banks. About N680b was injected into these banks and then top executive changed. As at 2011, three of the banks were nigerianized and their names changed.This suggests the inability of consolidation to ensure risk control, transparency and accountability among many of the banks. Two other banks intercontinental and oceanic were acquired by Access bank and Ecobank respectively by 2010. 3. 0 The Effects of Banking Sector Consolidation on labor and the Economy Banking sector consolidation through recapitalization, has these attendant economic benefits (1) The process of recapitalization and the consequent merger and or acquisition engendered many of the banks to get registered with the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) and therefore get listed (publicly quoted).Ownership of the banks became widened and public. Many Nigerians can now own some stakes in the banking sector rather than private ownership that 173 European Scientific Journal May edition v ol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 were the pictures of many banks pre consolidation era. This demands that the various boards become more responsive and alive to their responsibilities. (2) Banks were able to shore up their shares, boosting both individual and corporate investments. Locally and internationally; about $652million of foreign direct investment (FDI) was attracted (Fadare, 2010). 3) Banking restructuring and strategy that are information and communication technology (ICT) driven; a shift from the manual to automated systems involving the use of various e-banking and e-payment systems. There has been usersÃ¢â¬â¢ acceptance of this because of their convenience, time savings and they also meet transaction needs (Adesina and Ayo, 2010). It has also led to the flexibility of business on the part of the banks. (4) Enhanced customer relationships through creation of facilities and instruments that enable easy banking.Intending customers can ope rate their accounts through telephone 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and even on public Holidays (GT Bank 2006/2007 Interim Reports) (5) Best practice which have earned some of the banks conferment of the International Standard Organization (ISO) 9001: 2000 certification award by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) (6) The waned confidence of the public in the banking sector is changing for the positive as shown in the average deposit rise post consolidation from 10,482. 36b Naira in 2004 to 188,478. b Naira in 2006. (See table 3). Table 3 Pre and post consolidation performance of the Nigerian Banks Macroeconomic indications NÃ¢â¬â¢m2004a NÃ¢â¬â¢m2005b NÃ¢â¬â¢m2006b % charge measure/decrease (-) or differences (D) (+) Average deposit (NÃ¢â¬â¢m) Average networth (NÃ¢â¬â¢m) 10,482. 36 7,708. 73 85,007. 13 19708. 88 445,008. 9 18,478. 55 38,831. 31 525,482. 0 27. 82 +1690. 0500 +403. 73% +68. 87% Credit to the private sector 311,646. 8 to private sector growth rate 26. 6 174 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431Return on equity % Assets utilization % 35. 28 33. 62 30. 8 12. 72 11. 2 11. 04 +0. 18 (D) 24. 16 (D) Source: CBN 2006 Publication Somoye, 2008 (7) Real sector -financing especially the financing of small and medium scales enterprise (SMEs) GTBank for instance sets aside #2. b for this purpose, though this is not adequate. (8) Competitiveness: Narrowing down the numbers of the existing bank evokes creativity, innovativeness service delivery, creating strategy to make the banks stay afloat in the competitive environment. The net-worth of banks grew by +403. 3% between 2004 to 2006 (see table 3 above). (9) Banking performance are also gaining the confidence of the regulatory agency as some of the banks are concluding arrangement to manage Nigeria external reserves (Idowu, 2006). (10) Banking culture is gradually expanding all over the country as the banks are expanding their point of presence. The cashless culture that will become a culture in 2013 will further reinforce this. 4. 0 Banking Consolidation: Challenges The process of recapitalization and post consolidation in Nigeria brought along its trail erger and acquisition. The following become unresolved issues. The issues can be categorized as pre and post consolidation. 4. 1 Pre-Consolidation (1) Unemployment: Rationalization during merger created unemployment. While it was not possible to confirm the number of workers disengaged as a result of the exercise (as at the time of writing this paper), the unconfirmed number has been said to be high. It is not possible though to have two Chairmen or two Managing Directors, etc,, It has not been however proved that banking sector had been adequately staffed.Efforts could be made to retrain workers for other challenges. The disengaged workers are burdens to the society, lowers national productivity, increased poverty, stress, and other psychological problems (Idowu, 2006). (2) Reneging on Collective Agreements: Many banks managements reneged on their collective agreement with the Unions. First Bank of Nigeria (FBN) for instance, sacked 1200 175 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 workers (New Age April 7, 2005).The Association of Banks, Insurance and Financial Institution (ASSBIFI) reacted by accusing the management of being insensitive and confrontational to organized labor in the country through its inconsistencies. It also accused the management of not consulting with it in line with earlier agreement on declaring redundancy. Also, the merger arising from UBA and Standard Trust promised that no members of the two banks would be retrenched. This has not been so. Many Higher National Diploma HND holders and contract staff had not been given full employment. 3) Diversity issues: The gulf between Higher National Diploma (HND) and Bachelors Degree holders rear ed its head. The HND holders were the first to be rationalized at the conclusion of the merger exercise. This has no regard for performance level of the individuals, and all other factors besides educational background that account for individual performance; factors like reward system, organization structure, organization supports (adequate tools, motivation and leadership styles).The society suffers as the pool of unemployment widened. Admission seeking into Polytechnics nosedived. Sectoral allocation to this sub sector also becomes a waste (Idowu, 2006). 4. 2 Post Consolidation (1) Perceptions of uncertainty and insecurity of tenure pervade banking landscape among the workers. This is because rationalization exercise is still on. The consequence of this is less commitment and higher propensity to quit. Many workers have already changed jobs to other sectors due to this factor.The fraud in Nigeria banks had been correlated with high level of job insecurity Omoife (2012) found that disengaged workers vent their anger on the banks using their knowledge of the workings of the banking hall to defraud banks The fraud ran into N189b. This would go a long way in capacity building and loan to real sector which can lead to employment generation and expansion. (2) Unethical/Moral questions at both the pre and post merger era, some banks engaged unqualified and inexperienced young ladies as marketers to woo big clients so as to meet the 25 billion Naira target and to shore up their capital base.Targets were given and management looked the other way not minding how these targets were met The marketers were given near impossible targets to meet Not meeting target led to job loss. The female workers were therefore exposed to sexual harassment, and all other marketers, to other unethical behaviors. This negates International Labor Organisation (ILO) advocacy for decent employment 176 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 3) Disillusionment: arising as a result of differentials in reward package and treatment for similar status and different merging groups, uncertainty of tenure, different career path for seemingly similar educational qualification, prejudices and biases expressed by the management of some of the banks against some groups (merging banks, educational: HND/Bachelors, Federal/ State universities. (4) Decent Employment: A report that has not been officially confirmed is the fact that some banks management asked HND holders to resign and reapply with their National Diploma (ND) qualification.As well, those that attained Bachelors degree or professional certificate are to re apply, serve probationary period in spite of the number of years that had been spent with the banks or the status of such individual. This is also in spite of the glass ceiling on the career path of HND or those possessing lower qualifications. Furthermore, the process of disengaging the workers were at best, immodest. Option of resigning or get retrenched: whichever becomes the lot of the workers, there were complaints of inadequate severance benefits if there was any paid.This is demeaning having no regard for best practice The consequences of all these include: I. II. III. IV. Labor has become cheapened Unions become weakened Career opportunity slowed down and Perhaps the banks gained and labor and society lost. (5). Corporate Governance Crisis Goje (2010) suggested that the weakness experienced by banking sector as regard corporate governance (CA) arrangement may have led to the current state whereby banks cannot safeguard against excessive risk taking. Recapitalization regime exposed the banks to non performing loans (NPL) and margin loan (ML) to the tune of N2. trullion Naira. The non performing loan (NPL) of some of the banks exceeded their Shareholders Funds (SHF). Eight of the banks Capital Adequacy (CA) was less than 10% and their Deposit Ratio (DR) were less than 25% (E topidiok, 2009). The diversion of deposits to foreign exchange trading including the transatlantic mortgage and financial crises led to loss of share holders fund values as many banks had to readjust shareholders stock as depicted in table 4. Table 4 177 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) ISSN 1857- 7431 INSURED BANKSÃ¢â¬â¢ ADJUSTED SHAREHOLDERSÃ¢â¬â¢ FUNDS AS AT DECEMBER, 2009 AND 2008 S/N BANKS SHAREHOLDERSÃ¢â¬â¢ SHAREHOLDERSÃ¢â¬â¢ FUND* (NÃ¢â¬â¢BILLION) FUND* (NÃ¢â¬â¢BILLION) 2008 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Access Bank Nig. Plc Afribank Nigeria Plc Bank PHB Plc Citibank Nigeria Ltd Diamond Bank Plc Ecobank Nigeria Plc Equitorial Trust Bank Ltd Fidelity Bank Plc Finbank Plc First Bank of Nig. Plc First City Monument Bank Plc Guaranty Trust Bank Plc Intercontinental Bank Plc Oceanic Bank International Plc Skye Bank PlcSpring Bank Plc Stanbic IBTC Bank Plc Standard Chartered Bank Ltd Sterling Bank Plc Union Bank Plc United Bank for Africa Plc Unity Bank Plc Wema Bank Plc Zenith Bank Plc Total 167. 22 127. 38 243. 24 29. 40 95. 64 43. 45 32. 38 129. 55 112. 86 315. 75 137. 66 130. 03 195. 58 211. 52 96. 55 (48. 68) 67. 22 28. 47 20. 58 115. 93 191. 44 16. 94 26. 68 313. 39 2,802. 18 2009 154. 30 (221. 69) (126. 84) 31. 68 98. 31 26. 02 (46. 95) 129. 99 (123. 70) 293. 89 132. 17 141. 82 (336. 35) (192. 20) 79. 56 (94. 08) 74. 61 29. 66 20. 14 (38. 56) 114. 8 (4. 06) (3. 22) 310. 99 448. 99 178 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 Source: NDIC Adjusted ShareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ Fund (Bank returns) The Apex Bank Code of Corporate Governance (CCG) set in 2006 and which was mandatory for all banks in the post consolidation era to comply with could not address insider trading, ineffective risk management and control. This accounted for the NPL crisis and therefore necessitated the establishment of Asset M anagement Corporation of Nigeria (AMCON).The CBN also injected N608b and provided technical assistance by replacing the so called incapable Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Executive Director ED of 8 banks with new ones. The corporate governance crises also accounted for percentage decrees in return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA) over the post consolidation years compare to pre consolidation as table 5 illustrates. Table 5 Pre and Post 2006 Recapitalization, Performance Evaluation Ratio for Nigeria Banks. Pre-recapitalization 2002 Net Interest Margin 11. 16 2003 14. 88 2004 9. 12 Post-recapitalization 2006 10. 7 2007 7. 71 2008 10. 21 (NM)% Yields (YEA)% Funding Return (ROE)% Return (ROE)% Source: NDIC Annual Report, Various Issues The return on equity (ROE) measuring the rate of return to shareholders that was 99. 45% in 2004 (pre-consolidation) fell to 27. 23% by 2008. Also, return on assets (ROA) that stood at 3. 9% pre consolidation (2004) reduced to 2. 58% by 200 8. This confirms post modernist/post development postulation that modernity like restructuring/reforms does not bring about organisational efficiency or capacity management loss of investment cannot lead to creation of employment.Also the purported over capacity of resources like labor that were eliminated does 179 on Assets 17. 55 4. 64 4. 62 27. 55 20. 32 18. 88 Cost on (FC)% 8. 09 Equity 86. 08 9. 42 00. 59 9. 47 99. 45 13. 05 41. 63 9. 63 29. 11 9. 66 27. 23 on Assets 4. 52 4. 13 3. 96 2. 63 2. 00 2. 58 European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 not corroborate the result pre-consolidation. Rather disillusionment, inefficiency still pervade banking sub-sector. 5. 0 Conclusion and Recommendation The banking sector is very crucial to economic growth.The consolidation period however reveal sharp practices against labor and society which would not benefit; the society and the labor but the banks themselves in terms of po sting huge profits: Organizations like banks always pay lip service to placing premium or value on their workers as usually reported in their annual reports. Human resource practices pre and post recapitalization regime does not confirm that their workers are their assets. Banking sector recapitalization carne with double edge: benefits and constraints on the economy, the people and the society.While the banks have achieved some efficiency in terms of its operations, treatment of men at work will further deepen unemployment, lead to disillusionment, uncertainty, job dissatisfaction and quitting. The Nigerian economy is still depressed. The Gross domestic products took a downward turn growing by 2. 5% in 2000 compared to 6. 9% in 2005 and further went down in 2009 and 2010 (GT bank 2006). Alo (2006) quoted wall street journal and Heritage foundation as rating Nigeria economy as worse of in August 2006 than it was the previous year and described it as repressed measured on index of Ec onomic Freedom.The rating for 2011 is no better. Nigeria ranked 106 and scored 56. 8% on index of economic freedom for 2010 and therefore grouped as unfree, unlike in the pre consolidation era. To be free means improvement in the overall quality of life and promotion of social and economic life (index of Economic Freedom, 2011). There is the need to manage people well if the objectives of recapitalization are to be met in concrete terms. Recommendations: A lot needs to be done and the following are recommended 1. Institutional machinery should be put in place to address the issue of undervaluing, under utilization of workers.Training and retraining of existing employees to improve their capacity for new demand rather than retrenchment is advocated. The banksÃ¢â¬â¢ net-worth and profit after tax had increased geometrically (see table 3). The capacity to employ, train and retain more workers and therefore expand employment should not be a constraint as 180 European Scientific Journa l May edition vol. 8, No. 9 ISSN: 1857 Ã¢â¬â 7881 (Print) e ISSN 1857- 7431 expansion of branches to new areas is ongoing and new facilities and instruments are also continually being introduced. 2.The federal government and its banking regulatory agencies should do more to ensure creation of employment. In a situation where institutional framework will lead to rationalization, efforts should be made to follow due process, retrain people to retain them in other capacities rather than worsen the unemployment problem. 3. Diversity management should be a best practice and this should be included by standard organization of Nigeria (ISON) in conferment of ISO award. Diversity management is a process by which the diverse elements in organization are enabled to release their potential in organizational attainment of goals.This involves valuing and rewarding people for what they are: race, sex, educational background personality disposition and ethnicity. While the presidency made proc lamation on HND/Bachelors dichotomy in 2006, legal framework and moral persuasions should be pursued to make organization embrace diversity management as best practices. 4. The best practice principle demands that banking organization in Nigeria should place value on their workers, manage them strategically to release their energy for accomplishment of organizational goals. 5.Regulatory bodies should put in place periodic monitoring to ensure compliance with code of corporate governance by banks. Stress test on banks by the CBN should be more frequent and periodic. 6. Credit to real sectors Ã¢â¬â Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs), manufacturing and agriculture to take the largest share of loan. This can lead to expansion of capacity utilization and ultimately employment generation and expansion